Nursing & Midwifery

Last Updated November 2014 page 1
Nursing & Midwifery
Harvard [Author-Date] Referencing Guide
Academic writing requires you to read, research and refer to the work of other people. Each
time you write about the ideas and words of others, it is necessary to identify their work by
making reference to it. You do this both in the text of your assignments, and in a list at the end
of these assignments. You need to reference information from books, journals, videos, the
World Wide Web and other print and electronic sources.
Many schools within the University of Tasmania have their own style guides indicating how
assignments should be referenced. Nursing and Midwifery use Harvard referencing (which is
one of the author-date styles). This guide gives a basic introduction to the Harvard referencing
system, and follows the standard prescribed by Snooks and Co. (2002), which is the official
style followed in most Australian Government publications.
Questions about Referencing
What is Referencing?
In your written work you will need to demonstrate your engagement with the scholarly literature.
A common view by students is that “what they say has to be ‘backed up’ by a ‘reference’”.
Scholarly endeavour, (such as the one in which you are engaged) is about the production of
knowledge, therefore it is suggested you think of referencing more as a demonstration of your
engagement with the literature, and what you have learned, as articulated through your ideas
and discussion.
It is important that you understand how to correctly refer to the work of others and maintain
academic integrity.
Failure to appropriately acknowledge the ideas of others constitutes academic dishonesty
(plagiarism), a matter considered by the University of Tasmania as a serious offence.
When should I reference? ALWAYS
A reference is always required if you:






directly quote (using someone else’s work in their exact words)
paraphrase (stating other authors’ ideas or theories in your own words)
summarise (using a brief account of other authors’ ideas)
copy statistics, figures, data, tables or structure
use evidence which is or might be in dispute
use other writers’ interpretations

Why should I reference? The ultimate purpose of referencing is so the reader can find this
information.






provides the foundation (evidence, scholarship) of your discussion
helps demonstrate or substantiate your argument
shows the extent of your reading and research
shows the reader the source of your information
allows the reader to verify your data
allows the reader to independently consult your sources

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How do I reference?
The Harvard system requires two things:
 an ‘in-text’ reference
 a list of references at the end of the text
In-text references
There are three elements that must be included:



Surname (family name) of the author
Year of publication
Page number if quoting or closely paraphrasing an author’s work

Reference List
Not only must you put referencing material within your assignment (referred to as in-text), you
must also have a list of references at the end of your essay, which must list all the sources
cited in the text. The heading for this list is either ‘List of References’ or ‘References’ and the list
always begins on a new page.

Arrange the reference list in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames, and then
chronologically for each author where more than one work by that author is cited [NOTE: in
a reference with 2 or more authors, surnames should be listed as they appear in the work
cited];
For each reference, the author’s surname (family name) is placed first, followed by initials,
then the year of publication is given followed by details of the publication;
The name of the publication (usually a book or journal) appears in italics;
Each entry in the reference list should be flush with the left margin;
Do NOT put dot points or numbers in front of your references;
There should be a blank line space between each entry in the reference list.



General comment on Harvard style – Titles
Harvard requires all titles to have only the first word capitalized, even though the book title or
journal article uses more capital letters.
Exceptions to the rule:
legal documents – Acts/Bills/Hearings
proper nouns – names of people/places/organizations /names of journals
Do NOT use the term – Bibliography
A bibliography refers to a final list of all the works you have read about a subject, some of which
may not have been used in writing your assignment. Academic writing only requires you to list
sources you have actually cited when writing your assignment. These are included in the above
described ‘List of References’.
How to Avoid Plagiarism
Paraphrasing or summarising
It is best to take notes from lectures and readings in your own words. For readings, close your
book, make your notes in your own words, reflecting your own understanding of the reading,
and then check back to correct any misunderstood details. This way you can more easily
paraphrase or summarise the key ideas from credible sources. This is the best way to provide
evidence in your writing for your arguments.
The major part of your writing should be in your own words; however, all concepts,
knowledge gained from elsewhere should be referenced immediately by an in-text citation and
in the Reference List. No page number is needed.
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EXAMPLE – SUMMARISING
McNaughton et al. (2009) write about the importance of diet in the context of diabetes.
Short Quotations
If you do want to use someone else’s words, make sure you have copied them exactly AND
placed them inside of single quotation marks, accompanied by an in-text citation which includes
the page number:
EXAMPLE – SHORT QUOTATION
When investigating diabetes, McNaughton et al.focus ‘on dietary patterns rather than specific dietary
components’ (2009, p.734).
Long Quotations
Long quotations of more than 30 words or approximately 3 lines are NOT PUT IN QUOTATION
MARKS. Long quotations should be put in their own paragraph which is indented with an in-text
citation that includes the page number/numbers. Use such quotations sparingly!
EXAMPLE – LONG QUOTATION
Breast milk is the optimal choice of feed for preterm infants and bestows many
advantages. Analysis has revealed that preterm mothers produce richer milk for
approximately 2 weeks post birth that may match the requirements of heavier babies (ie
those >1500g) as a sole source of nutrition during that time (Bates & Ducker 2005, p.121).
Secondary citations
If you refer to the concepts or ideas of an author quoted in a journal article/book/text you are
reading, you name the original author and use the term ‘cited in’ naming the text you are
currently reading. The text you are reading is the one you include in your Reference List NOT
the ‘secondary citation’. The in-text citation is formatted as below.
EXAMPLE – SECONDARY CITATION
Honari (cited in Wass 1994, p.46) defines health as ‘a sustainable state of well-being within sustainable
ecosystems, within a sustainable biosphere’.
OR
Health is defined as ‘a sustainable state of well-being within sustainable ecosystems, within a
sustainable biosphere’ (Honari, cited in Wass 1994, p. 46).
Referencing common knowledge
There is no need to reference common knowledge, such as the fact that Florence Nightingale
was a nurse during the Crimean War. However, differing accounts of her impact on modern day
nursing practice require references to indicate the source of your information and/or sources
that support your argument.
NOTE:
When obtaining information from the WorldWideWeb (WWW) it is important to only refer to
credible sites.
WWW CREDIBILITY CRITERIA

author’s credentials – a verifiable expert in the field; what level of qualifications does this
expert have?
verifiable organisation publishing the web page;
could the organisation’s aims bias the information being presented?
content – is current with no errors, based on research not mere opinion
links – connect to other verifiable sources



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Constructing a reference list using the Harvard system
Only include works actually cited. The following elements must be included in a reference list:
For a book: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, Book title, edition (if not first),
Publisher’s name, City of publication.
LeMone, P & Burke, KM 2000, Clinical handbook for medical-surgical nursing, 2rd edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.
For a chapter in an edited book: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, ‘Title of
chapter’, in Editor initials and surname (ed./eds), Book title, Publisher’s name, City of publication, pp. page
numbers.
Harvey, C, Meadows, G & Singh, B 2007, ‘Mental disorder in Australia’, in G Meadows, B Singh & M Grigg (eds),
Mental health in Australia : collaborative community practice, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp.167-
189.
For a print journal or newspaper article: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication,
‘Article title’, Journal title, vol. volume number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers.
Herth, K 2006, ‘Fostering hope in terminally-ill people’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1250-59.
An ampersand [&] joins
the second and last
author
Author’s
surname (family
name) followed
by a comma,
then initial(s)
Year of
publication
followed by a
comma – no
brackets
Title of the article using single quotation
marks. There is a capital letter for the
first word of the title ONLY, and there is
a comma after the second quotation mark
Title of the journal in
italics, followed by a
comma
Volume number
of the journal
Number of
the issue
Page numbers
of the article
Authors’ surnames
(family names) followed
by a comma, then initials
(no comma between
initial and [&] or [year])
Year of
publication
followed by
a comma –
no brackets
‘Title of the chapter’, is in single quotation marks,
followed by initials and surnames of editor(s)
with (ed.) or (eds)to indicate
these are the editor/s
The book’s title is in italics Publisher City of publication Chapter’s pages are
also included
Authors’ surnames (family
names) followed by a
comma, then initial(s)
Year of
publication
followed by
a comma –
no brackets
Title of the book in italics, followed by a comma.
Upper case is used for the first word
Publisher
Edition – City of publication
if not
first
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For an electronic journal article: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, ‘Article title’,
Journal title, vol. volume number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers (if there are any), retrieval statement:
viewed month day year, database name and/or <URL>.
Evans, J 2009, ‘Prevalence, risk factors, consequences and strategies for reducing medication errors in Australian
hospitals: a literature review’, Contemporary Nurse, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 176-189, viewed 10 January 2010, Health
Collection (Informit), <http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=637626944259759;res=IELHEA>.
For a special publication : Author surname (family name), Author
initials year of publication, Special publication title in italics if published, ‘but not in italics if unpublished’, description
of document, day/ month of publication, publisher, city, date viewed, database name and/or <URL>.
Murray, K 2003, Haven: the art and craft of refuge in Tasmania, exhibition catalogue, 27 March -10 May,
Salamanca Arts Centre, Hobart, Tasmania.
Sands, DCC 2008, ‘A study of suicide grief: meaning making and the griever’s relational world’, PhD Thesis,
University of Technology, Sydney, viewed 10 November 2009, Australasian Digital Theses Program,
<http://hdl.handle.net/2100/777>.
Title of special publication in italics if published description of type of
document
day / month
‘Title of special publication in quotation marks’ if not published description of type of document
Date viewed on www with a comma after year online database name and/or url
Database
name
Author’s surname
followed by a comma
and the initial(s)
Title of the article in
quotation marks
followed by a comma
Title of the journal
in italics, followed
by a comma
The URL (World Wide Web address)
is enclosed between < > and followed
by a full stop
Date viewed on www with a comma
after year
Year of publication
followed by a comma – no
brackets
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Referencing Examples:

Books In-text Examples Reference List
1 author (O’Connor 1957, p. 33)
OR
O’Connor (1957, p. 33) stated that, ‘…’
O’Connor, DJ 1957, An introduction to the
philosophy of education, Routledge &
Kegan Paul, London.
2 or 3 authors According to Summers and Smith
(2002, p.45) ‘blah blah’.
OR
(Summers & Smith 2002, p. 45)
Note: The ampersand (&) is used when the
authors’ names are inside brackets.
Summers, J & Smith B 2002,
Communication skills handbook: how to
succeed in written and oral communication,
John Wiley & Sons, Milton Qld.
Note: The ampersand (&) is ALWAYS used in
the
List of References.
4 or more authors (Happell et al. 2008)
Note: ‘et al.’ [meaning ‘and others’] is used
from first mention in the text when there are
four or more authors.
Happell, B, Cowin, L, Roper, C, Foster, K &
McMaster, R 2008, Introducing mental
health
nursing: a consumer oriented approach,
Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
No author In the Guidebook to Australian social
security law (1983) blah blah
OR
(Guidebook to Australian social security
law 1983)
Guidebook to Australian social security law
1983, CCH Australia, North Ryde, NSW.
Note: Cite the title instead of the author. Where it
is a book, journal, brochure or report the title
should be in italics. (Anonymous and Anon.
should be avoided.)
Several books by the
same author –
published in different
years
Brennan (2006, 2007) has written about
nurses
Brennan, S 2006, Contradictory stories : an
oral history of a group of 1960s nursing
students, School of Nursing and Midwifery,
University of Tasmania, Launceston.
Brennan, S 2007, The Fence on the
precipice: child welfare nursing 1918-1930,
School of Nursing and Midwifery, University
of Tasmania, Launceston.
Note: Multiple works by the same author should
be in chronological order, beginning with the
oldest work.
Several books by the
same author –
published in the same
year
(Jarvis 2008a, 2008b)
Note: In the text simply insert a/b/c etc as
appropriate, after the year of publication,
within brackets.
Jarvis, C 2008a, Physical examination and
health assessment, 5th edn, Saunders
Elsevier, Philadelphia.
Jarvis, C 2008b, Student laboratory manual
for physical examination and health
assessment, 5th edn, Saunders Elsevier,
Philadelphia.
Note: Such references are ordered alphabetically
by title – a/b/c are then allocated after year
Editions Baum (2008) discusses ….
Note: edition refers to each time a book/work
has been produced in a slightly altered form.
1st editions are NOT noted in reference lists.
Baum F 2008, The new public health, 3rd
edn, Oxford University Press, South
Melbourne.
Note: An edition number is placed after the title
of the work, between commas [NOT within
brackets].

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Edited book The concept of inequality (eds Carter &
Peel, 1976) …
Note: When referring to general
ideas/themes in an edited book/publication,
cite the editor/s of the book.
Carter, C & Peel, J (eds) 1976, Equalities
and inequalities in health, Academic Press,
London.
Note: When only one author = (ed.)
Note: place ed/eds WITHIN BRACKETS = (eds)
Books In-text Examples Reference List
Chapter in an edited
book – with author/s
As discussed by Brotto (2009)
Note: When referring to specific
ideas/concepts in a specific chapter of an
edited book/publication cite the chapter
author/s.
Brotto, V 2009, ‘Medication therapy’, in J
Crisp & C Taylor (eds), Potter & Perry’s
fundamentals of nursing, 3rd edn, Elsevier,
Sydney, pp. 727-754.
Note: place the page numbers of the chapter at
the end of the reference eg pp.727-754, as
above.
Adapted chapter in an
edited book
-with author/s
(Kretzschmer, Blackwell & Lewis 2008) Kretzschmer, J, Blackwell, P & Lewis SL
2008, ‘Nursing management: obesity’,
adapted B McPherson, in D Brown & H
Edwards (eds), Lewis’s medical-surgical
nursing: assessment and management of
clinical problems, 2nd edn, Elsevier, Sydney,
pp. 1041-1060.
Chapter in an edited
book –no author/s
(‘Community-based nursing practice’
2005)
‘Community-based nursing practice’ 2005,
in J Crisp, C Taylor, A Perry & P Potter
(eds), Potter & Perry’s fundamentals of
nursing, 2nd edn, Elsevier, Sydney, pp. 38-
55.
E-book – in an online
library collection
(Benner, Sutphen & Leonard 2009)
(Scanlon & Sanders 2007)
Benner, P, Sutphen, M & Leonard, V 2009,
Educating nurses: a call for radical
transformation, John Wiley & Sons,
Hoboken, viewed 10 May 2010, Ebooks
Corporation,
<http://www.utas.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.utas.
edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=468681>.
Scanlon, V & Sanders, T 2007, Essentials of
anatomy and physiology, 5th edn, FA Davis,
Philadelphia, viewed 31 March 2008,
NetLibrary,
<http://www.netlibrary.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/
>.
Note: Give the name of the electronic book
publisher and/or the main site URL, or the full
URL
E-book – on the World
Wide Web
Classic Text example,
recently republished
(Nightingale 2005 (1898)) Nightingale, F 2005 (1898), Notes on
nursing: what it is and what it is not,
Appelton, New York, viewed 2 October
2008, Project Gutenberg,
<http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/rea
dfile?fk_files=58626&pageno=1>.
Note: work reprinted in a different form refer
Snooks p 201.
Encyclopaedia or
dictionary –
anonymous entries
The Oxford dictionary of nursing (2008, p.2)
defines an abscess as ‘…’
Note: Do not include in the Reference List
Encyclopaedia article
-with evident author/s
As explained by Peterson (1993) … Peterson, CC 1993, ‘Adult children and their
parents’, in R Kastenbaum (ed.),
Encyclopedia of adult development, the
Oryx Press, Pheonix, Arizona, pp.1-6.
Print Journals/ Media In-text Example Reference List

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Journal article
– DIRECT QUOTE …
OR
– PARAPHRASE …
When investigating diabetes,
McNaughton et al. focus ‘on dietary
patterns rather than specific dietary
components’ (2009, p.734).
OR
(McNaughton et al. 2009)
McNaughton, SA, Dunstan, DW, Ball, K,
Shaw, J & Crawford D 2009, ‘Dietary quality
is associated with diabetes and cardio
metabolic risk factors 1-3’, The Journal of
Nutrition, vol. 139, no.4, April, pp.734-742.
Journal article – no
author
Even back in 1969 it was reported, ‘In
some hospitals the shortage is so critical
that only the basic physical care of the
patient can be attempted’ (‘Psychiatric
nursing’ 1969, p. 526).
‘Psychiatric nursing’ 1969, British Medical
Journal, vol. 1, p. 526.
Newspaper and
magazine articles
(Ellis 2009) Ellis, N 2009, ‘Nurse practitioners: reform or
risk?’ The Examiner, 27 November, p.23.
Newspaper article –
no author
It was stated in the Mercury (11 July
2009, p. 2) that…
Note: No Entry in reference list. Details are
included in the in-text entry instead.
Media release (Patterson 2002) Patterson, K (Minister for Health) 2002,
Private health insurance rebate relieves
pressure on Victoria’s public hospitals,
media release, Parliament House, Canberra,
27 February.
Electronic
Journals/Media
In-text Example Reference List
Journal article from an
electronic database
(Thorsell et al. 2008)
Note: You do not need to give a URL (Web
address) for electronic journal, newspaper or
magazine articles accessed through online
library databases. The name of the database
is sufficient. The name of the supplier can be
added. For example:
 CINAHL database (EBSCO)
 PubMed database(U.S. National Library of
Medicine)
 Health Collection (Informit)
 Blackwell Science, Technology &
Medicine Collection
 InformaWorld Current Subscriptions
 Directory of Open Access Journals
 Cochrane Library (Wiley Interscience)
 SpringerLink
ANZ Reference Centre (EBSCO) or
Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre
(EBSCO)
Thorsell, M, Kaijser, M, Almström, H &
Andolf, E 2008, ‘Expected day of delivery
from ultrasound dating versus last menstrual
period–obstetric outcome when dates
mismatch’, BJOG: An International Journal
of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 115, no.
5, pp. 585-589, viewed 6 November 2009,
ProQuest Health and Medical Complete
database.
OR
Thorsell, M, Kaijser, M, Almström, H &
Andolf, E 2008, ‘Expected day of delivery
from ultrasound dating versus last menstrual
period–obstetric outcome when dates
mismatch’, BJOG: An International Journal
of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 115, no.
5, pp. 585-589, viewed 6 November 2009,
Wiley Interscience,
<http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi
bin/fulltext/119421357/PDFSTART>.
Note: use database name and/or URL

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Systematic review
article from the
Cochrane Library
(Duncan, Best & Hagen 2010) Duncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,
‘Shared decision making interventions for
people with mental health conditions’,
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, The
Cochrane Library,
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cl
sysrev/articles/CD007297/frame.html>.
OR
Duncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,
‘Shared decision making interventions for
people with mental health conditions’,
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, The
Cochrane Library.
OR
Duncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,
‘Shared decision making interventions for
people with mental health conditions’,
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, The
Cochrane Library,
<http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/i
ndex.html>.
Journal article free on
the World Wide Web –
author
(Parker et al. 2009) Parker, RM, Keleher, HM, Francis, K,
Abdulwadud, O 2009, ‘Practice nursing in
Australia: A review of education and career
pathways’ BMC Nursing, vol. 8, no.5,
viewed 27 November 2009,
<http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-
6955/8/5>.
Newspaper article
from an electronic
database – author
(Trenwith 2007) Trenwith, C 2007, ‘Midwives say ward may
not reopen’, Illawarra Mercury, 21
September, viewed 9 September 2008, ANZ
Reference Centre (EBSCO).
Newspaper article
from the World Wide
Web – author
Trounson in describing the response to
TAFE nursing degrees stated , ‘The
nursing profession is worried’ (2008,
para. 6).
Trounson, A 2008, ‘TAFE nursing degrees
spark protest’, The Australian, 5 September,
viewed 6 November 2009,
<http://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher
education/tafe-nursing-degrees-spark
protest/story-e6frgcjx-1111117402604>.
Newspaper or
magazine from the
World Wide Web – no
author
(H Hospital Newspaper 2008)
Note: for electronic newspapers without a
paper version, there is too much detail to be
included in an in-text citation … this detail
must be included in the reference list as
adjacent.
H Hospital Newspaper 2008, ‘UMDNJ
School of Nursing receives second grant to
help increase and diversify the nation’s
nursing workforce’, New Jersey Medical
School/ University Hospital, viewed 6
November 2009,
<http://www.hospitalnewspaper.com/webpa
ges/news/displaynews.aspx?PT=state&stat
e=NJ&ID=17decc42-b651-457c-94d3-
870c55df5de2&e=e_581>.

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Media Release on the
web
(Roxon 2009) Roxon, N (Minister for Health & Ageing)
2009, Minister Consults on Dental Reform,
media release, Canberra, 27 September,
viewed 16 October 2009,
<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/
publishing.nsf/Content/75B125BE24D05736
CA257640002090E9/$File/nr165.pdf>.
Wiki articles
[only use if credible
author evident]
(Ganfyd 2009) Ganfyd, 2009, ‘Diabetes mellitus’, wiki
article, 17 November, viewed 29 November
2009,
<http://www.ganfyd.org/index.php?title=Diab
etes_mellitus>.
Print & Electronic –
Reports, Conference
Papers,
Lectures,Theses,Brochu
res
In-text Examples Reference List
Reports – electronic
[annual reports]
(Australian Health Practitioner
Regulation Agency (AHPRA) 2010)
Note: In the reference list, electronic annual
reports do not need the publisher or place
Australian Health Practitioner Regulation
Agency (AHPRA) 2010, Annual report 2009-
2010, viewed 9 October 2010,
<http://www.ahpra.gov.au/Legislation-and
Publications/AHPRA-Publications.aspx>
Reports – electronic
[organisational reports]
In a report commissioned by the
California Board of Registered Nursing it
was found that blah blah blah (Spetz et
al. 2009).
Spetz, J, Keane, D & Herrara, C, University
of California, San Francisco, School of
Nursing and Center for the Health
Professions 2009, Survey of registered
nurses in California, 2008, California Board
of Registered Nursing, Sacramento, CA,
viewed 9 April 2010,
<http://www.rn.ca.gov/pdfs/forms/survey200
8.pdf >.
Conference
Papers – electronic
[in published
proceedings]
[unpublished papers]
(Bramble, Moyle & Shum 2009)
Note: In Reference List, for published
conference proceedings italicise the Title of
the Conference; BUT DO NOT include the
conference date [ie days/month].
(Hamrin 1997)
Note: In Reference List, for conference
papers which are not found in published
conference proceedings DO NOT italicise
the Conference Title; but DO include the
conference date [ie days/month].
Bramble, M, Moyle, W & Shum, D 2009,
‘Challenges to implementing an evidenced
based partnership model in an Australian
residential care setting’, in Proceedings of
quality of care & quality of life pushing the
boundaries in ageing research a
symposium, Griffith Institute for Health and
Medical Research, Research Centre for
Clinical and Community Practice Innovation,
Brisbane, p. 5.
Hamrin, E 1997, ‘Models of doctoral
Education in Europe’, paper presented at
the Conference on International Network for
Doctoral Education in Nursing: Vision and
Strategy for the International Doctoral
Education, University of British Colombia,
Vancouver, Canada, 17 June, viewed 10
November 2009,
<http://www.umich.edu/~inden/papers/mode
ls.html >.
Lecture
– posted on MyLO
(Kelly 2010)
Note: If quoting specific text from one slide
reference the number of the slide.
For example … (Kelly 2010, slide 4)
Kelly, R 2010, CNA145 Lecture 8: Bio
ecological model of human development,
University of Tasmania, Launceston, viewed
10 May 2010, MyLO site.

Last Updated November 2014 page 11

Theses
– print
– electronic
(Marlow 2004)
(Sands 2008, p. 118)
Marlow, A 2004 ‘Just a nurse: A critical
exploration of how general medical nurses
regard their practice’, MN thesis, University
of Tasmania, Launceston.
Sands, DCC 2008, ‘A study of suicide grief:
meaning making and the griever’s relational
world’, PhD Thesis, University of
Technology, Sydney, viewed 10 November
2009, Australasian Digital Theses Program,
<http://utsescholarship.lib.uts.edu.au/iresear
ch/scholarly-works/handle/2100/777 >.
Brochures or
pamphlets
– print
– electronic
(Abbott Diabetes Care 2009)
Fraser (2004) describes the joys of
homebirth.
Abbott Diabetes Care 2009, What is
diabetes? pamphlet, Abbott Diabetes Care,
Doncaster, Vic.
Fraser, J (2004), Why do women choose
homebirth? pamphlet, Guardian Homebirth
Services Brisbane, Qld, Australia, viewed 9
April 2010,
<http://www.homebirthservices.com.au/why
homebirth >.
Print & Electronic –
Personal
communications
In-text Examples Reference List
Personal
Communications –
– verbal
– electronic [email, web
blogs etc]
In an interview (T Thin 2009, pers.
comm., 1 April) about the numbers of
underweight people attending the
‘Healthy Eating’ program, the program
coordinator revealed …
Mr A Brown confirmed this by email on
25 February 2009.
Note: DO NOT INCLUDE PERSONAL
COMMUNICATIONS in the Reference List.
Note: Permission should be obtained before
using as a reference.
Note: include all relevant details in your in-text
citation.
World Wide Web* In-text Example Reference List
World Wide Web –
document [pdf or word
document]
‘Nurses and midwives are able to use
social media …….to connect with
colleagues and professional
associations’. (Nursing and Midwifery
Board of Australia (NMBA) 2010, p.1).
Note: in reference list, if the author is the
publisher a long name can be abbreviated at
second mention.
Note: in reference list, the date [9 Sept] is
placed AFTER the place of publication/
before ‘viewed’.
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia
(NMBA) 2010, Social media information
sheet for nurses and midwives, NMBA,
Melbourne, 9 September 2010, viewed 27
January 2011.
<http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/
FAQ-and-Fact-Sheets.aspx>
World Wide Web – web
page
(National Health & Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) 2009)
NHMRC 2009, Stem cells, cloning and
related issues, NHMRC, Canberra, viewed
22 November 2009,
<http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/research/embryo
s/stemcells/index.htm>.

Last Updated November 2014 page 12

World Wide Web – no
date
(Kariclub n.d.)
Note: ACADEMIC WRITING REQUIRES
CREDIBILITY. When accessing/citing web
documents such as this one, you must ask
yourself, ‘Is this a credible site?’*
Kariclub n.d., What are the benefits of
breastfeeding? Nutricia Australia Pty Ltd,
Macquarie Park NSW, viewed 10 January
2010,
<http://www.kariclub.com.au/breastfeeding/t
he_benefits_of_breastfeeding>
World Wide Web – blog
post
(Miller 2009) Miller, I 2009, ‘Mindfulness training for
medical staff’, impactednurse.com, blog
post, 16 November, viewed 29 November
2009,
<http://www.impactednurse.com/?p=1491>.
Secondary Sources In-text Example Reference List
Book Honari (cited in Wass 1994, p.46)
defines health as ‘a sustainable state of
well-being within sustainable
ecosystems, within a sustainable
biosphere’.
OR
Health is defined as ‘a sustainable state
of well-being within sustainable
ecosystems, within a sustainable
biosphere’ (Honari, cited in Wass 1994,
p. 46).
Wass, A 1994, Promoting health: the
primary health care approach, 2nd edn,
W.B. Saunders, Sydney.
Note: Reference the book that you actually
sourced.
Journal Article The word “research” is “inextricably
linked to European imperialism and
colonialism” (Smith, cited in Pyett,
Waples-Crowe & van der Sterren 2008,
p. 181).
OR
Linda Tuhiwai Smith (cited in Pyett,
Waples-Crowe & van der Sterren 2008,
p. 181) noted that the word “research” is
“inextricably linked to European
imperialism and colonialism”.
Pyett, P, Waples-Crowe, P, & van der
Sterren, A 2008, ‘Challenging our own
practices in Indigenous health promotion
and research’, Health Promotion Journal of
Australia, vol. 19. no. 3, pp.179-183, viewed
20 July 2008, CINAHL database (EBSCO).
Note: Reference the journal that you actually
sourced.
Government
Publications
In-text Example Reference List
A) Legislation:
General term used to
describe laws made by
Parliament or by a
Parliamentary delegate.
Legislation falls under
two categories:
 The short title written in italics should be
used for citation purposes.
 First references should always cite this.
 Subsequent references can be shown in
roman script (not italics) with the date
omitted.
 When citing legislation, you may need to
specify portions of the legislation.
 The basic units of division are the section
(for an Act) and the regulation (for a
Regulation) – these replace page number.
NOTE: Titles of ALL GOVERNMENT
DOCUMENTS should not be in sentence case –
but should have the exact use of capital letters
as in the original document.

Last Updated November 2014 page 13

1) Acts (also known
as Statutes)
– final form of
legislation passed into
law
… the Nurses and Midwives Act 1991
(NSW), s. 5A, states, ‘Unauthorised
persons are not to hold themselves out
as nurse practitioners or midwife
practitioners’. [DIRECT QUOTE]
OR
Section 5A of the Nurses and Midwives
Act 1991 (NSW) outlines penalties for
the unauthorised persons representing
themselves as nurse or midwife
practitioners. [PARAPHRASE]
Note: sections of the Act can be written in
full [Section 5A] OR as an abbreviation
[s.5A]
Note – IN TEXT CITATION should include:
Name of act – including year (Jurisdiction),
section
Note – REFERENCE LIST: generally DO NOT
INCLUDE in reference list; put all these details in
the in-text citation.
Note – HOWEVER: if inclusion is vital to
understanding, insert at the END OF THE
REFERENCE LIST under a separate heading
‘Legislation’.
Legislation
Nurses and Midwives Act 1991 (NSW).
2) Subordinate or
Delegated Legislation
(also known as
Regulations, Notices,
Proclamations etc.)
… the Nurses and Midwives
Regulations 2008 (NSW) ….
Note: Regulations and other forms of
delegated legislation should be presented in
roman type.
IN TEXT CITATION – as above should include
all necessary information.
REFERENCE LIST – as above generally do not
include in the Reference List OR if absolutely
necessary list under a separate heading
‘Legislation’.
Legislation
Nurses and Midwives Regulations 2008
(NSW).
B) Unlegislated legal documents:
Bills
– legislation /draft laws
under discussion by the
parliament, whether
state or federal.
One significant clause in the Nursing Bill
1992 (Qld) defines an ‘accredited
nursing course’ as ‘a nursing course that
is accredited under this Act’ (cl.4).
Note: as above [cl.] replaces [p.]
Note: the clause in a Bill, once approved and
passed into law, becomes the section of the
Act
Note: Unlike an Act the title of a Bill is not in
italics.
Note: as with Acts [above] only include in the
Reference List if important/place under heading
‘Legislation’.
Legislation
Nursing Bill 1992 (Qld).
Cases / Tribunal
Decisions
– legal decisions made
in a court of law.
The State of New South Wales v. The
Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54
Tricare and Minister for Health and
Family Services [2001] AATA 653
RJT v Nurses’ Board of Victoria [2000]
VSC 498
Note: IN TEXT REFERENCE Include the
name of the case (italicised) and reference
details (year, ABBREVIATED NAME of
report series or Court and page or judgment
number).
Note: as above if inclusion is vital to
understanding, insert at the end of the Reference
List under a separate heading ‘Legal Authorities’
[NOT ‘Legislation].
Legal Authorities
Tricare and Minister for Health and Family
Services [2001], AATA 653

Last Updated November 2014 page 14

Government
Publications
In-text Example Reference List
Australian Bureau of
Statistics
– publication
– individual authors
included
(Pink et al. 2008)
NOTE: When authors (individuals) are
included on the publications title page in
addition to the corporate bodies – these
individuals must be put first/cited as authors.
NOTE: For PDF documents downloaded
from the web, the web address of page they
were downloaded from should be included.
Pink, B, Allbon, P, Australian Bureau of
Statistics & Australian Institute of Health &
Welfare 2008, The Health and Welfare of
Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples: 2008, ABS Cat.
no. 4704.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics
and Australian Institute of Health & Welfare,
Canberra, viewed 20 February 2009,
<http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.
cfm/title/10583>.
Australian Bureau of
Statistics
– publication
– no individual authors
included
(Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
2009)
Note: use above at first citation; thereafter
cite using the abbreviation: (ABS 2009).
ABS 2009, ‘Health Literacy’, Australian
social trends, Cat.no.4102.1, viewed 5
September 2009, ABS, Canberra,
<http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.
nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20June+2
009>.
Australian Bureau of
Statistics
– website (eg census
material)
Reference to census materials is written
within the text:
(ABS 2007)
If a census spreadsheet has been re
produced whole the following citation should
be placed below the excel spreadsheet:
(Source: ABS 2007)
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007,
‘Industry of Employment by Occupation –
Australia’, 2006 Census Tables: Australia,
time series spreadsheet, Cat.no.2068.0,
viewed 9 November 2009, ABS website,
<http://www.abs.gov.au>.
Non Government
Organisation (NGO)
publications
(Peden et al. 2008) Peden, M, Oyegbite, K, Ozanne-Smith, J,
Hyder, A, Branche, C, Rahman, A, Rivara,
F, & Bartolomeos, K 2008, World report on
child injury prevention, World Health
Organization & UNICEF, Geneva, viewed
23 February 2009,
<http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/
9789241563574_eng.pdf>.
Patent Australian Patent No. 763210 (2000)
concerned the influenza virus.
OR (Kistner et al. 2000)
NOTE: a patent can be cited by either the
patent number OR by the inventor’s name.
Kistner, O, Barrett, N, Mundt, W & Dorner,
F 2000, Novel influenza virus vaccine
composition, Australian Patent No. 763210.
NOTE: in the reference list, the patent is
referenced by the name of the inventor.
Standard (Standards Australia & Standards New
Zealand 2006)
Standards Australia & Standards New
Zealand 2006, Sterilization of health care
products – Radiation – Guidance on
dosimetric aspects, AS/NZS ISO
11137.3:2006, viewed 4 February 2008,
Standards Online Premium database (Sai
Global).
Audio/Visual Sources In-text Example Reference List
Image – in a printed
book
The photograph ‘Greet client
congenially’ illustrates a pleasant
exchange between a nurse and a
hospitalized patient (Elkin, Perry &
Potter 1996, p.22).
Elkin, M, Perry, A & Potter, P 1996, Nursing
interventions and clinical skills, Mosby,
St.Louis.
Image – author, on the
World Wide Web
(Karsh 1948)
Note: Most images on the internet are Copyright in
which case only linking is permissible, unless the
author gives permission for reproduction.
Karsh, Y 1948, Sister Kenny, The good, the
great and the gifted: camera portraits by
Yousuf Karsh & Athol Shmith, National
Gallery of Australia, Canberra, viewed 3
March 2008,
<http://nga.gov.au/Exhibition/KarshShmith/D
etail.cfm?IRN=49479&ViewID=2>.

Last Updated November 2014 page 15
Bibliography
Faculty of Business, University of Southern Queensland 1999, Harvard referencing, University of Southern
Queensland, Toowoomba, 18 Feb., viewed 22 September 2009,
<www.usq.edu.au/extrafiles/business/journals/HRMJournal/Harvard%20Referencing.htm>.

CD ROM
– one CD ONLY
– a CD from a set of
CDs
(Maxis Software Inc. 2001)
(Szilagyi & Bickley 2007)
Maxis Software Inc., 2001, Sim City: the
original city simulator enhanced for cd-rom,
CD-ROM, Interplay Productions, Irvine, CA.
Szilagyi, P, & Bickley, L 2007,
‘Cardiovascular: peripheral vascular
system’, Bates’ visual guide to physical
assessment, CD ROM, vol.5, Wolters
Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, n.p.
Note: if place is unknown use n.p.
Mobile App (iMIMS Australia 2014) iMIMS Australia 2014, (Version 1.3.2),
mobile application software, MIMS Pte. Ltd.,
viewed 24 November 2014,
<https://itunes.apple.com/au>.
Film, DVD, Video
(Refer Snooks p. 229)
(The oasis: a feature documentary about
Australia’s homeless youth 2008)
The oasis: a feature documentary about
Australia’s homeless youth 2008, DVD,
Shark Island Productions, Sydney.
Distributed by the ABC. Directed by Sascha
Ettinger Epstein & Ian Darling.
Radio and TV
programs
(The Health Report 2008) The Health Report 2008, radio program,
ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.
Podcasts/Vodcasts
– program
– specific episode
(Cancer and the use of complimentary
and alternative medicine 2009)
(‘Talking Stick: Health’ 2009)
Cancer and the use of complimentary and
alternative medicine 2009, podcast, The
Health Report, ABC Radio, Sydney, 26
October, accessed 29 October 2009,
<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/20
09/10/hrt_20091019_0847.mp3>.
Note: Can also use main site details, for example
above the link would then be:
<http://www.abc.net.au/rn/healthreport/> .
Note: do not use podcast RSS URL.
‘Talking Stick: Health’ 2009, Message Stick,
vodcast, ABC Television, Sydney, 14 June,
viewed 20 May 2010,
<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/tv/geo/messa
gestick/messagestick_2009_ep19.wmv>.
YouTube video
– author known
– author unknown
(Murphy 2013)
(Structure of library’s resources 2013)
Murphy R 2013, Structure of library’s
resources, online video, viewed 21 August
2013,
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cdrk2Z
yumw>.
Structure of library’s resources 2013, online
video, viewed 21 August 2013,
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cdrk2Z
yumw>.

Last Updated November 2014 page 16
Library and Computing Services, James Cook University Queensland 2009, Harvard referencing guide, James
Cook University Queensland, Townsville, viewed 22 September 2009,
<http://cms.jcu.edu.au/libcomp/assist/guides/finding/JCUPRD_026228>.
Library, University of Tasmania 2009, Referencing and assignment writing, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7 Sept.,
viewed 23 September 2009, <http://utas.libguides.com/referencing>.
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.
Teaching and Learning Unit, University of South Australia 2007, The harvard author-date referencing system,
University of South Australia, Adelaide, June, viewed 23 September 2009,
<http://www.unisa.edu.au/ltu/students/study/referencing/harvard.pdf>.

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