Expert Minds Instructions:
Using the proposal below, I need assistance in developing dissertation Theory, Literature Reviews and Methodology as specified below. I want a majority of the study to be quantitative analysis in Stata or SPSS something like factor or discriminant analysis, however I will need to conduct some qualitative analysis to include interviewing major companies like Nestle and Uniliver etc. I need assistance in developing the frameworks of the research and furthermore, assistance in quantitative data sources that I can analyse to prove my point. I have great love for the continent of Africa – if your expert sees something wrong in this proposal, can you please highlight it. I will conduct the research and am planning to travel to Europe and Africa so please don’t lead me astray.
Theory, Literature Reviews and Methodology
- A revised version of paper 1 plus an additional 3 – 4+
- Include your theoretical framework (revised).
- Begin summarizing the literature you have found and that will be part of the proposal.
- Begin developing the Methodology section of your proposal:
- What is your research design? See How to Write a Research Proposal guide.
- Who is the target population? This is the Sampling section of the proposal.
- What is the sampling frame you propose to use and why?
- How large is your sample and why do you propose this number of participants?
- Provide a revised survey (from paper 1). A complete questionnaire for your research (In Appendix). This will be part of the Instrumentation section of the proposal.
- How do you propose to sample elements (interviews, observation, focus groups) and why? This is part of the Data Collection & Analysis Procedures section of our proposal.
- Write a paragraph on the Protection of Participant’s Rights.
Comments and Corrections for Research Proposal 1 from Professor
Excellent work on the proposal as it highlights the main research proposals. You separate your paper by headings. You identify your research as qualitative and quantitative research. Key is that you explaining your thoughts. I have giving you more specifics below.
Your questionnaire is missing in appendix, it may be because you are using and existing data. Please make sure that you provide the source of the data.
Introductions – Your introduction is good. It can be stronger. It is the most important part of your study. You introduce previous research in your introduction that supports your ideas. It announces your topic, provide context and a rational for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Please note well-written introduction set the tone for the paper, catch the reader’s interest, and communicate the hypothesis or thesis statement, and I will encourage you to do that.
Literature Reviews start – Love the approach you took with that for now. Please note that you will need more in your second submission.
Purpose/objectives – You described concisely what the research was trying to achieve. They summarized the accomplishment your wishes to achieve through the project and provided direction to the study.
Problem statement- Is the area of concern, a gap in the existing knowledge, or a deviation in the norm or standard that points to the need for further understanding and investigation. It should help you clearly identify the purpose of the research project you will propose.
Research questions – Is the question around which you center your research. It should be clear, and provide enough specifics that one’s audience can easily understand it’s purpose without needing additional explanation
Research Proposal 2
An Analysis on the Global Directional Response
Food Insecurity in Sub Saharan Africa
Colleen C. Chinake
Table of Contents
Background of the Research: 3
Statement of the Problem: 4
Research Objectives: 4
Research Questions: 5
Proposed Methodology 6
Background of the Research
More than 820 million people living worldwide are facing malnutrition and among them the highest percentage is present in Africa (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2019). About 28% of the African population (200 million people) is facing malnutrition. Out of these, approximately 38 million people living in Africa are facing danger due to insecurity, instability, and peace (World Bank, 2018). The United Nation Security Council acknowledges that the food crisis in Africa is a threat to the security and peace in the region. Data gathered by Food and Agricultural Organization from 2014 to 2017 in 149 nations revealed that the education, poverty status and the area of habitation are important determinants of the variance in food security levels amid the women and men (Jones, 2017). It was also found that the gender gap in case of food insecurity is highest amongst the uneducated and poverty-stricken population (Smith, Rabbitt & Coleman-Jensen, 2017).
Increasing Africa’s agricultural production is essential for achieving food security. Despite its vast potential, Africa has the lowest agricultural productivity in the world and must import much of its food. For most Sub-Saharan dwellers food relationship and food insecurity impacts health resulting in starvation or malnutrition. While there is an obvious definition of food security, as a measure of the availability of food in our daily lives, there are some variables that might limit access to the availability such as cost. On the other hand, food insecurity is not a single case of not having something to eat for a day or two. For Sub-Saharan Africa, food insecurity can mean daily perpetual hunger as Oxford Dictionary (n.d.) defines food insecurity as being with no easy resources of affordable nutritious foods. The dictionary also notes the more than 800 million people who do not have access to enough affordable nutritious food worldwide. However, food security does not just mean getting enough calories, but having a varied and nutritious diet that supports a healthy lifestyle. An anecdotal fact is that some of the top 100 Food & Beverage Companies like Nestlé, PepsiCo Incorporated, JBS, Unilever and Associated British Foods have been marketing foods to Sub-Saharan Africa without orientating the products for nutrition for the region. Sub-Saharan people have been forced to use socially unacceptable means to include stealing, scavenging, or other coping strategies to survive yet they belong to a natural resources’ rich continent. Companies like Unilever market Infant Formula which per Mayo Clinic Staff (2020) do not ‘contain the immunity-boosting elements of breast milk that only your body can provide to the baby’. The result becomes a child deprived of ‘potent cocktail of hormones’ from a mother’s milk and stunted growth or under development.
Statement of the Problem
The proposed research will analyse the global directional response to food insecurity in Sub Saharan Africa. It will explore the challenges faced by the global agencies in providing food aid to Sub Saharan Africa and the ways for tackling these challenges. The United Nations (U.N.}. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the World Health Organization (WHO) have worked together globally eliminate food insecurity and the challenges outline a greater scope on hunger, malnutrition, and health in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The proposed study will comprise of the following research objectives:
- To investigate global agencies directional response to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa and the impact and the problematic fallout from food insecurity.
- To explore the challenges faced by the global agencies in providing food aid to Sub Saharan Africa.
- To examine the ways in which the global agencies can handle the challenges hey face in providing food aid to Sub Saharan Africa.
- To explore if the nutritional content of the foods donated/marketed to Sub Saharan Africa is replacing nutritious foods and causing problems.
The proposed research will find solution to the following research questions:
- What are the consequences of global failure to responses to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa and what are the directional responses these agencies are taking?
- What are the challenges faced by the global agencies in providing food aid to Sub Saharan Africa?
- What are the ways in which the global agencies can handle the challenges they face in providing food aid to Sub Saharan Africa?
- How to orient western enterprises away from promoting and marketing consumer food products that are non-nutritious or inappropriate for Sub-Saharan African society?
Some of the reviews related to the proposed topic include The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2018) which revealed that food insecurity influences the well-being and the health of the population and negatively affects mental, social and physical safety. Coleman-Jenson et al. (2017) revealed the negative psychosocial impact of food insecurity in children and women.
The proposed research will comprise of qualitative as well as quantitative research methodology. The qualitative research methodology will involve primary as well as secondary source of data collection. The primary source will involve collection of data from the reports of Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations. The secondary source will involve review of articles, books, journals, case studies, newspapers, magazines, and websites. The quantitative analysis will involve statistical analysis of the data collected from the reports of Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the World Health Organization (WHO).
The future of World Food Programs must be reoriented to meet the needs of Sub Saharan Africa and not focus on emergency assistance only. The global community has committed to end hunger by achieving food security and improve nutrition by 2030 (United Nations, 2019) yet globally one in nine people still do not have enough to eat one in nine people worldwide still do not have enough to eat. ‘Food and food-related assistance lie in the canter of the struggle to break the cycle of hunger and poverty (United Nations, 2019).
Coleman-Jenson, et. al. (2017). Food insecurity is associated with subjective well-being among
individuals from 138 countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll. The Journal of Nutrition,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2019). The state of food security
and nutrition in the world: Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns.
Food Engineering. (2019). Top 100 Food & Beverage Companies. Retrieved from
Iacobucci, D. (2017). Marketing Models: Multivariate Statistics and Marketing Analytics 4th ed.
Jones, A. D. (2017). Food insecurity and mental health status: A global analysis of 149 countries.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(2), 264-273.
Mayo Clinic Staff (2020). Breast-feeding vs. formula-feeding: What’s best? Retrieved from
Orr, D. (2015). UN agencies expand operations in southern Africa as poor harvests deepen food
insecurity. WFP. Retrieved from https://news.un.org/en/story/2015/10/512992-un-
Sayed, D. (2015). Food Insecurity in Pakistan and the scope for regional cooperation. Retrieved
Smith, M. D., Rabbitt, M. P., & Coleman-Jensen, A. (2017). Who are the world’s food insecure?
New evidence from the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Food Insecurity Experience
Scale. World Development, 93, 402-412.
United Nations (n.d.) Food. Retrieved from www.unitednations.org
United Nations (2019). Overview. https://www.wfp.org/overview
World Bank. (2018). Poverty and shared prosperity 2018: Piecing together the poverty puzzle.
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