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HLTAID011 Provide first aid

HLTAID011 Provide first aid:

HLTAID011 PROVIDE FIRST AID

     

 

STUDENT ASSESSMENT BOOKLET HLTAID011 Provide first aid

Student Name: _____________________________________________________________________________ Date Commenced: __________________________________________________________________________   

 

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Table of Contents

Assessment Overview. 4

Assessment Task Summary. 4

Assessment Documents. 4

Required Additional Documents. 4

Assessment Task Cover Sheet 4

The Assessment Process and Your Rights. 5

Submitting your Assessment Tasks. 5

Assessment Attempts and Resubmissions. 5

Assessment Outcomes. 5

Plagiarism, Cheating and Collusion. 5

Assessment Appeals. 6

Reasonable Adjustment 6

Information about Assessment 6

Dimensions of Competency. 6

Principles of Assessment and Rules of Evidence. 7

Principles of Assessment 7

Rules of Evidence. 7

Glossary of Instructional Task Words. 8

Assessment Plan. 9

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 1. 11

Assessment Task 1: First Aid Scenarios and Demonstrations. 13

Scenario 1 – Adult CPR. 15

Scenario 2 – Infant CPR. 17

Scenario 3 – Anaphylaxis. 18

Scenario 4 – Asthma Attack. 19

First Aid Demonstrations. 20

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 2. 23

Assessment Task 2: Incident Reports. 25

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 3. 29

Assessment Task 3: Theory Test 31

Appendices. 53

Appendix A: Incident Report Form.. 53

 

Assessment Overview

This Student Assessment Booklet includes all your assessment tasks for HLTAID011 Provide first aid.

Assessment Task Summary

This unit requires you to complete three assessment tasks. You must satisfactorily complete all tasks to achieve competency for this unit.

Assessment TaskAssessment MethodTask SummaryAssessment Task 1:
First Aid Scenarios and DemonstrationsScenariosStudents will need to undertake four first aid scenarios in front of the assessor:Adult CPRInfant CPRAnaphylaxis Asthma.Students will also need to demonstrate the ability to provide first aid for:a snake bitea basic woundbleeding control a suspected sprain/straina fracturea person in shock.Assessment Task 2:
Incident ReportsScenariosStudents will need to complete incident reports based on the scenarios from Assessment Task 1 and answer some questions.Assessment Task 3:
Theory TestTheory TestStudents must correctly answer all questions to show that they understand the knowledge required of this unit. This will be done under test conditions.

 

Assessment Documents

Required Additional Documents

The following additional documents support this Student Assessment Booklet and form part of the assessment tool for this unit. You will require them to complete the assessments for this unit/cluster.

Incident Report Form

Assessment Task Cover Sheet

At the beginning of each task in this booklet, you will find an Assessment Task Cover Sheet. Please fill it in for each task where you need to submit items for assessment, making sure you sign the student declaration.

Your assessor will give you feedback about how well you went in each task and will write this on the back of the Task Cover Sheet.

 

The Assessment Process and Your Rights

Submitting your Assessment Tasks

When you have completed your assessment tasks, you will need to submit them, according to the instructions provided to you by your assessor or RTO.

If you are provided with a due date, you must make sure you submit your tasks in accordance with it. You may be required to apply for an extension if you require extra time, according to your RTO’s policies and procedures.

Instructions about submission can be found at the beginning of each assessment task.

Make sure you keep a copy of your tasks before you submit them. Your RTO will need to keep them as evidence and may not be able to return them to you.

Assessment Attempts and Resubmissions

You have up to three attempts to complete each assessment tasks satisfactorily. If after the third attempt, you have not completed a task satisfactorily, your assessor will make alternative arrangements for assessment, which may involve additional training and time to consolidate your skills and knowledge. When you are required to resubmit, you may be required to:

Resubmit incorrect answers to questions (such as written tasks and case studies)

Resubmit part or all of a project, depending on how the error impacts on the total outcome of the task

Redo a role play after being provided with appropriate feedback about your original performance

Being observed a second (or third time) undertaking any tasks/activities that were not satisfactorily completed the first time, after being provided with appropriate feedback

When you are required to resubmit, you’ll be given a due date for your resubmission. For example, you may:

Be given 30 days in which to resubmit incorrect responses to written tasks, projects and so on

Be provided with feedback about your performance in a role play and then being required to complete the role play again at a future meeting with your assessor

Need to complete workplace-based tasks again during the same workplace visit or additional workplace observations may need to be scheduled (as applicable)

All re-submissions will be conducted in accordance with the RTO’s policies and procedures.

Assessment Outcomes

Each assessment task will be given an outcome of either Satisfactory (S) or Not Satisfactory (NS). You must complete all tasks satisfactorily to achieve an overall outcome of Competent (C) for a unit. If one or more of tasks are assessed as Not Satisfactory, you will be given an outcome for the unit of Not Yet Competent (NYC).

You will be given a total of three attempts to complete each task and achieve a Satisfactory outcome. In the case of resubmission, you will be given a date by which you will need to resubmit, and you’ll be given feedback about what needs to be addressed in your resubmission.

Plagiarism, Cheating and Collusion

Plagiarism, cheating and collusion on assessments is not acceptable. Any incidence of this is considered academic misconduct. The definitions of each of these are below.

Cheating – seeking to obtain an unfair advantage in the assessment of any piece of work.

Plagiarism – to take and use the ideas and/or expressions and/or wording of another person or organisation and passing them off as your own by failing to give appropriate acknowledgement. This includes material from any sources such as staff, students, texts, resources and the internet, whether published or unpublished.

Collusion – unauthorised collaboration between students.

Where your assessor believes there has been an incident of academic misconduct involving plagiarism, cheating, and/or collusion, this will be addressed in line with the RTO’s policies and procedures which may ultimately lead to your withdrawal or you needing to complete the whole unit again.

Assessment Appeals

If you don’t agree with an assessment decision made, you have the right to appeal it. You may need to lodge your request for an appeal within a certain amount of time from the original decision being made. You will need to make your appeal in writing and follow your RTO’s process for appeals. Refer to your Student Handbook for more information about our appeals process.

Reasonable Adjustment

A legislative and regulatory framework underpins and supports the delivery of vocational education and training across Australia. Under this framework, providers of vocational education and training must take steps to ensure that students with recognised disabilities have the same learning opportunities and same opportunities to perform and complete assessments as students without disabilities. Sometimes reasonable adjustments are made to the learning environment, training delivery, learning resources and/or assessment tasks to accommodate the particular needs of a student with a disability. An adjustment is reasonable if it can accommodate the student’s particular needs while also taking into account factors such as:

The views of the student

The potential effect of the adjustment on the student and others

The costs and benefits of making the adjustment

RTOs are obliged by law to provide reasonable adjustments where required to ensure maximum participation of students with a disability.

Making reasonable adjustments requires the RTO to balance the need for change with the expense or effort involved in making this change. If an adjustment requires a disproportionately high expenditure or disruption it is not likely to be reasonable.[1]

Please discuss with your assessor if you believe a reasonable adjustment to an assessment task, method or process needs to be made on the basis of disability.

 

Information about Assessment

Dimensions of Competency

To be competent, you must show your ability to perform effectively in a broad capacity. The dimensions of competency ensure the person being assessed has the skills to perform competently in a variety of different circumstances. To be competent, you must demonstrate the following:

Task Skills: The skills needed to perform a task at an acceptable level. They include knowledge and practical skills, and these are usually described in the performance criteria.

Task Management Skills: These are skills in organising and coordinating, which are needed to be able to work competently while managing a number of tasks or activities within a job.

Contingency Skills: The skills needed to respond and react appropriately to unexpected problems, changes in routine and breakdowns while also performing competently.

Job Role/Environment Skills: The skills needed to perform as expected in a particular job, position, location and with others. These skills may be described in the range of variables and underpinning skills and knowledge.

Principles of Assessment and Rules of Evidence

Assessment must be conducted in accordance with the rules of evidence and principles of assessment (definitions from the Users’ Guide: Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015).

The following are the definitions of the Principles of Assessment and Rules of Evidence.

Principles of Assessment

Validity:

‘An assessment decision of the RTO is justified, based on the evidence of performance of the individual learner.’

Validity requires:

Assessment against the unit/s of competency and the associated assessment requirements covers the broad range of skills and knowledge that are essential to competent performance

Assessment of knowledge and skills is integrated with their practical application

Assessment to be based on evidence that demonstrates that a learner could demonstrate these skills and knowledge in other similar situations; and

Judgement of competence is based on evidence of learner performance that is aligned to the unit/s of competency and associated assessment requirements.

Reliability:

‘Evidence presented for assessment is consistently interpreted and assessment results are comparable irrespective of the assessor conducting the assessment.’

Flexibility:

‘Assessment is flexible to the individual learner by:

Reflecting the learner’s needs

Assessing competencies held by the learner no matter how or where they have been acquired

Drawing from a range of assessment methods and using those that are appropriate to the context, the unit of competency and associated assessment requirements, and the individual.’

Fairness:

‘The individual learner’s needs are considered in the assessment process.

‘Where appropriate, reasonable adjustments are applied by the RTO to take into account the individual learner’s needs.

‘The RTO informs the learner about the assessment process and provides the learner with the opportunity to challenge the result of the assessment and be reassessed if necessary.’

Rules of Evidence

Validity:

‘The assessor is assured that the learner has the skills, knowledge and attributes as described in the module or unit of competency and associated assessment requirements.’

Sufficiency:

‘The assessor is assured that the quality, quantity and relevance of the assessment evidence enables a judgement to be made of a learner’s competency.’

Currency:

‘The assessor is assured that the assessment evidence demonstrates current competency. This requires the assessment evidence to be from the present or the very recent past.’

Authenticity:

‘The assessor is assured that the evidence presented for assessment is the learner’s own work.’

Glossary of Instructional Task Words

Your assessment tasks use a range of instructional words throughout them – such as ‘compare’ and ‘list. These words will guide you as to the level of detail you must provide in your answers. Some questions will also tell you how many answers you need to give – for example, ‘Describe three strategies…’. Use the below glossary to guide you on interpreting the words in the tasks.

Explain – This means you need to make something clear or show your understanding by describing it or providing information about it. You will need to make clear how or why something happened or is the way it is.

Identify – You must recognise something and indicate who or what the required information is. The length of the answer should be guided by what you are being asked to identify.

List – You must record short pieces of information in a list form – with one or two words, or sentences on each line. 

 

Assessment Plan

The following outlines the assessment requirements for this unit. You are required to complete all assessment requirements outlined below to achieve competency for this unit.

Your assessor will provide you with the due dates for each assessment task. Write them in the table below.

Assessment TasksDue DateAssessment Task 1: First Aid Scenarios and Demonstrations Assessment Task 2: Incident Reports Assessment Task 3: Theory Test 

 

Agreement by the studentRead through the assessments in this booklet before you fill out and sign the agreement below. Make sure you sign this before you start any of your assessments.Have you read and understood what is required of you in terms of assessment?¨   Yes¨  NoHave you read and understood the RTO’s policies and procedures related to reassessment? ¨   Yes¨  NoDo you understand the requirements of this assessment?           ¨   Yes¨  NoDo you agree to the way in which you are being assessed?¨   Yes¨  NoDo you have any special needs or considerations that must be made in preparation for this assessment? If yes, what are they?__________________________________________________________________¨   Yes¨  NoDo you understand your rights to appeal the decisions regarding assessment?¨   Yes¨  No

 

Student Name: __________________________________________________     

 

Student Signature: _______________________________________________      Date: _______________

 

Assessor Name: _________________________________________________    

 

Assessor Signature: ______________________________________________      Date: _______________

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 1

Students: Please fill out this cover sheet clearly and accurately. Make sure you have kept a copy of your work.

Name: Date of observation: Unit:HLTAID011 Provide first aidNo. of Pages in Submission:  Assessor to completeAssessment Task Number & TitleSatisfactory/
Not satisfactory
DateIs this a reassessment? Y/NAssessment Task 1: First Aid Scenarios and Demonstrations   

STUDENT DECLARATION

I __________________________________________________ declare that these tasks are my own work.

None of this work has been completed by any other person.

I have not cheated or plagiarised the work or colluded with any other student/s in the completion of this work.

I have correctly referenced all resources and reference texts throughout these assessment tasks.

I understand that if I am found to be in breach of the RTO’s policies, disciplinary action may be taken against me.

 

Student Signature: _______________________________________________      Date: _______________

 

 

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

A copy must be supplied to the office and kept in the student’s file with the evidence.

 

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Assessor Signature: _____________________________________________________________________

 

Assessor Name: ________________________________________________________________________

 

Date: _______________

 

Assessment Task 1: First Aid Scenarios and Demonstrations

 

Note: If you are undertaking workplace-based training and assessment, you may be undertaking the scenarios in your own workplace. Your assessor will advise as to whether assessment will be held in your workplace or if you need to attend a first aid class that provides a simulated workplace environment.Simulated workplace environments may closely reflect your area of industry. Your assessor will ensure the setup of the environments with appropriate props and space in which you can do your scenarios. In some cases, your scenarios may be undertaken outdoors, particularly if the area you are studying has an outdoor focus (for example, horticulture, sports and recreation, construction and so on).

 

Task summaryTask summary For this task you are required to complete four first aid scenarios, covering:Adult CPRSingle rescuer CPR on an adult manikinRotation of operators (with a classmate) on an adult manikinThe recovery position (with a classmate).Infant CPRAllergic reaction/anaphylaxis Asthma attack.You are also required to demonstrate your ability to provide first aid for:a snake bitea woundbleeding controla suspected sprain/straina fractureshock.

 

What happens if you get something wrongIf there are any tasks that you do not complete satisfactorily, your assessor will discuss with you any gaps in your skills and knowledge and will make arrangements for reassessment or further training.Your assessor will give you a due date by which this must be provided.

 

 

Resources and equipment requiredAccess to your learning materialsRefer to each scenario/demonstration for the resources and equipment required.

 

Where and when this task will be completedYou will do this task in the first aid class, completing the scenarios in a simulated workplace environment.

 

Submission requirementsYou do not need to submit anything for this task.

 

Task instructionsYou will be observed by your assessor completing each first aid response (scenarios and demonstrations). You are required to complete each one satisfactorily. Instructions for each scenario and demonstration are provided below.

 

Scenario 1 – Adult CPR

About the scenarios

You will need to complete three CPR scenarios:

Part A: CPR, with use of an AED

Part B: CPR with rotation of operators

Part C: Placing a person into the recovery position.

 

Part A – CPR AND AEDA staff member calls out to you from another room at your workplace. When you go to the room you find one of your colleagues lying unconscious on the ground. A number of other staff have already arrived at the scene and are crowding into the room and around the door to see what is happening. Show your assessor that you can respond to this first aid situation.

 

Part B – rotation OF operatorsYour assessor will have grouped you with a classmate. Demonstrate, using the adult manikin, that you can safely rotate operators with your classmate. You must be the person who is doing CPR at the start of the scenario.

 

Part C – THE RECOVERY POSITIONYour classmate will play the role of a casualty. Demonstrate that you can safely put this person into the recovery position.

Context and conditions of these scenarios

For Part A you will work with your classmates (a minimum of four). You will play the role of the first aider. Some other members of the group will play the role of staff who are at the scene.

For Parts B and C, you will work with a classmate – your assessor will pair you up before the assessment begins.

You will work on an adult manikin for Part A and Part B.

You should ensure you have an understanding of the following processes prior to commencing these scenarios. DRSABCD How to conduct a visual assessmentHow to place someone in the recovery position The secondary survey How to deal with vomiting/regurgitationSafe manual handling when dealing with a casualty How to treat a casualty with respectMonitoring a casualty until emergency services arrivesHow to rotate operators with minimal disruption to CPR The recovery position How to provide an accurate verbal report to emergency services How to review and debrief after a first aid situation.

Resources required for these scenarios

An AED training device

A first aid kit

An adult manikin (placed on the floor)

A phone

Classmates to play the role of colleagues

A classmate to be your partner for Parts B and C.

 

 

Scenario 2 – Infant CPR

 

One of your colleagues comes to visit your workplace during her maternity leave. She has 9-month-old twins. The babies are sitting on the floor playing together when one begins to choke. The mother panics. She sees some small objects on the floor nearby – her baby must be choking on one!The other baby is crying and distressed at the commotion. Show your assessor that you can respond to this first aid situation.

Context and conditions of this scenario

For this scenario, you will work alone with the infant manikin to demonstrate your ability to perform single rescuer uninterrupted CPR for two minutes (five cycles of both compressions and ventilations).

Some other members of your group will play the role of children and staff at the scene.

Your assessor will give you verbal instructions as to the specific details of the scenario (for example, the status of the casualty).

You should ensure you have an understanding of the following processes prior to commencing this scenario. How to manage choking, including back slaps, chest thrusts and mouth-clearing processesDRSABCDConsent to perform first aidHow to conduct a visual assessmentThe secondary surveySafe manual handling when dealing with a casualty Monitoring a casualty until emergency services arriveThe recovery position How to provide an accurate verbal report to emergency services How to review and debrief after a first aid situation.

Resources required for this scenario

An infant manikin

A first aid kit

A phone

Classmates to play the role of colleagues and children.

 

 

Scenario 3 – Anaphylaxis

 

It is your birthday – you and your colleagues are having a morning tea to celebrate the fact that you are getting another year older! You have cake, an assortment of sandwiches and slices as well as drinks and a big bowl of nibbles. Towards the end of the morning tea, one of your colleagues approaches you, they are struggling to breathe and their face is swollen. They are anaphylactic to nuts and they think they may have ingested some without knowing.

Context and conditions of this scenario

For this scenario, you will work in small groups.

You will each need to play the role of the first aider. You can take turns playing the role of bystanders and the casualty.

As part of this scenario you will also need to show you can administer an adrenalin auto-injector to someone who is suffering an anaphylaxis attack from a food allergy.

You will also need to show that you can monitor someone until emergency services arrives and provide them with reassurance.

You should ensure you have an understanding of the following processes prior to commencing this scenario. How to make casualties comfortable and monitor their statusConsent to perform first aidHow to conduct a visual and verbal assessmentWhat to check prior to administering an adrenalin auto-injectorHow to administer an EpiPenTreating casualties with respectMonitoring a casualty until emergency services arrives.

Resources required for this scenario

A phone (this can be a mobile phone or landline phone on a desk, for example)

A glass or bottle of water

A training EpiPen.

 

 

Scenario 4 – Asthma Attack

 

Your co-worker is having an asthma attack. You rush to help them.Show your assessor that you can respond to this first aid situation.

Context and conditions of this scenario

For this scenario, you will work in pairs.

You will each get a turn to play the casualty and then the first aider.

You will need to do this twice – once using a spacer, the second time not using a spacer.

You should ensure you have an understanding of the following processes prior to commencing this scenario. DRSABCDConsent to perform first aidHow to conduct a visual and verbal assessmentHow to use an inhaler (with and without spacer device) to treat asthmaHow to make casualties comfortable and monitor their statusTreating casualties with respect.

Resources required for this scenario

Two types of bronchodilator (placebo) with spacer device

A person to play the role of the casualty.

 

 

First Aid Demonstrations

 

In this part you will need to demonstrate the ability to use correct first aid techniques for:a snake bitea basic woundnose bleeda suspected sprain/straina fractureshock.

Context and conditions of these demonstrations

For these demonstrations, you will work with a partner. During the demonstrations your assessor will ask you some questions about the first aid response.

You should ensure you have an understanding of the following prior to commencing the demonstrations. Asking for consent to provide first aidApplying the pressure immobilisation technique Basic wound care Nose bleedA suspected sprain/strainFracture ShockMaking sure your casualty is comfortableTreating your casualty with respectKnowing when to send for helpTaking standard precautions.

Resources required for these demonstrations

A first aid kit, including:

pressure/roller bandages

triangular bandages

compression bandages

wound dressings

saline/sterile water

gloves.

A rigid item to be used as a splint

A blanket

An icepack/compress

A phone.

Demonstration 1: Envenomation

Show your assessor that you can provide first aid to a person who has been bitten by a snake, using the pressure immobilisation technique.

Demonstration 2: Basic wound care

Show your assessor that you can provide first aid to a person who has grazed their knee.

Demonstration 3: Nose bleed

Show your assessor that you can provide first aid to a person who has a nose bleed.

Demonstration 4: Sprain/strain

Show your assessor that you can correctly provide first aid to a person who has a suspected sprain or strain of the ankle.

Demonstration 5: Fracture

Show your assessor that you can provide first aid to a person who has fractured their forearm.

Demonstration 6: Shock

Show your assessor that you can provide first aid to a person who has gone into shock.

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 2

Students: Please fill out this cover sheet clearly and accurately. Make sure you have kept a copy of your work.

Name: Date of observation/ submission: Unit:HLTAID011 Provide first aidNo. of Pages in Submission:  Assessor to completeAssessment Task Number & TitleSatisfactory/
Not satisfactory
DateIs this a reassessment? Y/NAssessment Task 2: Incident Reports   

STUDENT DECLARATION

I __________________________________________________ declare that these tasks are my own work.

None of this work has been completed by any other person.

I have not cheated or plagiarised the work or colluded with any other student/s in the completion of this work.

I have correctly referenced all resources and reference texts throughout these assessment tasks.

I understand that if I am found to be in breach of the RTO’s policies, disciplinary action may be taken against me.

 

Student Signature: _______________________________________________      Date: _______________

 

 

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

A copy must be supplied to the office and kept in the student’s file with the evidence.

 

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Assessor Signature: _____________________________________________________________________

 

Assessor Name: ________________________________________________________________________

 

Date: _______________

 

Assessment Task 2: Incident Reports

 

Task summaryFor this task you are required to fill out incident reports for two of the scenarios from Assessment Task 1 and answer some questions.

 

Resources and equipment requiredIncident report template provided below.

 

Where and when this task will be completedThis task will be done in class after you complete the scenarios in Assessment Task 1.

 

What happens if you get something wrongIf your assessor identifies that you did not complete one or both incident reports correctly (for example, by missing information or not following the provided procedure) or correctly identify the breaches in procedure, they will provide you with feedback and you will need to resubmit.

 

Submission requirementsCompleted Incident Report Form 1. Completed Incident Report Form 2.Response to scenario.

 

Task instructionsYou are to fill out incident reports for two of the first aid scenarios you completed. You are to imagine that each situation occurred in your workplace. Your workplace procedure about how to report injuries or incidents is provided below.You will need to follow the procedure and fill out the incident reports using the template provided (two copies have been provided in your Student Assessment Booklet). You are to assume your assessor is the manager, and you are the first aider.Choose two appropriate incidents from Assessment Task 1 that meet the requirements of the procedure.To ensure accurate reporting as per procedure:add the names of your classmates who were bystanders as witnessesadd the name of the person who played the role of the casualty (or make up a name if you were using a manikin)use the date/time that you completed the relevant incident (as close as you can recall)note that cause of injury may not be known in some cases (follow the procedure in this instance).When you have finished, read the scenario below. On the day of the incident, you get a copy of the form from the Human Resources office. You fill it out but leave it on your desk because you have to go to a meeting. After the meeting you go home. You have the following day off. When you return to work you find that someone has moved the incident report into your in tray. You go looking for your manager but they aren’t in the office yet, so you drop the form into the Administration Officer’s in tray with a note for it to be passed on to the manager – they sit right outside the manager’s office so they can easily pass it on. Based on this scenario, write down how you have not followed your workplace’s procedure in terms of maintaining confidentiality and privacy.Submit the Incident Report Form and your answers to the questions to your assessor.

 

Injuries to employees, contractors or visitors to the workplaceStaff are expected to immediately report any incidents that occur at work that impact on an individual’s health or safety. The manager must ensure that all incidents and injuries that occur in the workplace (indoors and outdoors) have been reported.Incidents and injuries that must be reported include:death (including suicide and suicide attempts)serious injuries (those that involve visiting a GP, first aid administration, transport by ambulance or hospitalisation)transport accidentsassault or threat of assault criminal acts (violence, theft, arson, vandalism)siege, hostage, disappearance or removal of a staff memberfirearms, weapons or bomb threatsfires, floods, major disasters or natural eventschemical, biological or radiological spillage or contaminationoutbreak or incidence of diseasesexual assault or allegations of inappropriate sexualised behaviour.If an incident occurs in the workplace where there is an injury, an Incident Report Form must be filled in by the first aider (where applicable) or the manager (where a first aider did not respond/was not present to respond). The form can be obtained from the Human Resources office.If the injury or incident is minor, the person who was injured may fill it in themselves. The incident must be fully and accurately documented. If any details are not known, please write ‘Not known’ in the space provided.A hard copy of the Incident Report Form must be filled out within 24 hours of the incident and submitted directly to the manager.All hard copy documentation will be stored in a locked file cabinet in the Human Resources office. Only HR staff and the manager have access to the key. Hard copies will be stored and uploaded to the file management system to the Human Resources directory, which is accessible only by the manager and HR staff with the appropriate system permissions.Privacy and confidentiality must be maintained at all times – documentation must be immediately handed to the manager once it has been filled out.

 

Assessment Task Cover Sheet – Assessment Task 3

Students: Please fill out this cover sheet clearly and accurately. Make sure you have kept a copy of your work.

Name: Date of submission: Unit:HLTAID011 Provide first aidNo. of Pages in Submission:  Assessor to completeAssessment Task Number & TitleSatisfactory/
Not satisfactory
DateIs this a reassessment? Y/NAssessment Task 3: Theory Test   

STUDENT DECLARATION

I __________________________________________________ declare that these tasks are my own work.

None of this work has been completed by any other person.

I have not cheated or plagiarised the work or colluded with any other student/s in the completion of this work.

I have correctly referenced all resources and reference texts throughout these assessment tasks.

I understand that if I am found to be in breach of the RTO’s policies, disciplinary action may be taken against me.

 

Student Signature: _______________________________________________      Date: _______________

 

 

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

A copy must be supplied to the office and kept in the student’s file with the evidence.

 

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Assessment Task 3: Theory Test

 

Task summaryFor this task you are required to correctly answer all the questions to demonstrate your knowledge of first aid principles and practices.

 

Resources and equipment requiredPenAdditional paper if required.

 

Where and when this task will be completedThis task will be done on the day of the course.

 

What happens if you get something wrongIf your assessor identifies that you have answered any questions incorrectly, they will talk to you about resubmission. You will need to do one of the following:Answer the questions that were incorrect in writing.Answer the questions that were incorrect verbally.

 

Submission requirementsStudent Assessment Booklet 2 with all answers completed.

 

Task instructionsYou are to complete this closed book test during the first aid class. In order to pass you must answer all the questions correctly. You will be given 60 minutes to complete the test. You may request additional paper from your assessor if you need it.

 

 

 

Question 1 – First aid in general

How often are you required to undergo first aid training to maintain currency of skills and knowledge? Tick the correct answer.

CPR training – every two years; First aid training – every three years.

CPR training – every year; First aid training – every three years.

CPR training – every year; First aid training – every two years.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

Once a first aider begins to render first aid assistance, they have a duty of care for the physical wellbeing of the casualty.Correct oIncorrect oAn employer may not direct a first aider to cease providing first aid.Correct oIncorrect oIt is not acceptable for a first aider to hand over to another person, if that person has superior first aid skills.Correct oIncorrect oDuty of care means that a first aider must provide first aid with ‘ordinary’ skill and to the best of their ability.Correct oIncorrect oANZCOR guidelines facilitate a standard approach to resuscitation best practice in Australia and New Zealand.Correct oIncorrect o

What should you do if a first aid situation is beyond your skills and limitations? Tick the correct answer.

Try your hardest to provide first aid based on what you think is the correct thing to do.

Do nothing in case you make a mistake.

Seek assistance from trained professionals – for example, emergency services.

What should an organisation do to minimise risks and hazards in the workplace? Tick the four correct answers.

Identify hazards that may result in causing injury.

Make sure every hazard is eliminated no matter what the cost to the workplace.

Assess the type, severity and likelihood of these injuries to determine how great the risk is.

Only manage risks that are determined as ‘high risk’.

Provide relevant first aid equipment, facilities and training.

Review first aid requirements regularly or if circumstances change.

Before you apply any first aid to a casualty, should you obtain consent? Tick the correct answer.

If the person is conscious you must obtain consent as they have a right to refuse treatment.

There is no need to obtain consent, the ambulance service has a duty of care to provide treatment no matter what the circumstances.

Consent must be obtained in every circumstance.

How should privacy and confidentiality be maintained during and after a first aid event? Tick the four correct answers.

You should tell your close friends everything about the event, as it will hopefully encourage them to become first aiders.

During a first aid event bystanders should be removed as much as is practicable to ensure privacy.

Following the first aid event, you should well-wishers about the casualty’s condition.

Staff needing to debrief with other colleagues should do so respectfully and confidentially.

Incident reports should be kept in a secure place, accessible only to authorised people.

Details of all incidents must be discussed at staff meetings.

You can only release details of the incident with written consent of the person who was treated.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

You should cover a casualty to maintain their modesty.Correct oIncorrect oYou should not tell the casualty the details about the extent of their injuries if they ask you.Correct oIncorrect oAlways reassure and calm the casualty during a first aid incident.Correct oIncorrect oYou don’t need to tell the casualty everything you are doing. It’s better they don’t know.Correct oIncorrect oYou must respect the right of the casualty to refuse first aid.Correct oIncorrect oYou should deal with all casualties the same way, regardless of their culture.Correct oIncorrect oYou think the casualty has done something stupid that resulted in their injuries. You should tell them this so they don’t do it again – it’s for their own good!Correct oIncorrect o

 What do you need to be aware about in a workplace First Aid Kit? Tick the three correct answers.

The First Aid Kit is fully stocked

All of the equipment in the First Aid Kit is in date

There should always be Panadol stocked in a First Aid Kit

The First Aid Kit is suitable for the workplace and the types of incidents/injuries that are more likely to occur

Question 2 – Psychological impacts and debriefing

Emergency situations may cause significant psychological impact on witnesses, families, staff and children.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

We all deal with stress in the same ways.Correct oIncorrect oSigns of stress can include irritability, withdrawal and changes in sleep patterns.Correct oIncorrect oAfter an incident, formal or informal debriefing by a qualified professional should be offered to all people involved in the incident.Correct oIncorrect oRest, sleep and meditation are good stress relievers.Correct oIncorrect oIt’s not normal to feel guilt, fear or shame after a first aid incident.Correct oIncorrect oIt is okay to contact ‘Lifeline’ if you are struggling to cope or deal with a first aid incident you were involved in or witnessed.Correct oIncorrect oUsing alcohol and other drugs as a coping mechanism can be helpful in the short term.Correct oIncorrect oDebriefing after an incident helps to identify any issues with your first aid response.Correct oIncorrect oReviewing policies, procedures and actions taken after an incident helps to identify any issues with your first aid response.Correct oIncorrect o

Question 3 – Chain of survival

Number each link in the ‘Chain of survival’ in its correct order from 1–4.

Step numberStep in the Chain of Survival Early defibrillation Early CPR Early call for help Early advanced life support/care

Question 4 – Airways and breathing

When maintaining an open airway in an infant, the head should be kept in a neutral position, rather than tilting back the head as you would for an adult or older child. Select the answer below that best describes the reason for this.

In an infant the nasal passage, trachea and windpipe are much narrower than in adults and older children.

The trachea is very soft and can be distorted if the head is tilted backwards.

The head should be supported in a neutral position with the mouth kept open with support on the chin.

There should be no pressure on the soft tissue of the neck.

All of the above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The backward head tilt and chin lift is used for adults and older children. Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

The tongue and other soft tissues may block the airway because muscles are relaxed in an unconscious person.Correct oIncorrect oWithout the head tilted back, the mouth will tend to fall open which may block the airway.Correct oIncorrect oThis position assists to keeps the airways open.Correct oIncorrect oThe backward head tilt position can be used for casualties with suspected spinal injury.Correct oIncorrect oA casualty who is sitting upright with their head dropped down will not be in danger of a blocked airway.Correct oIncorrect o

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements about airway management.

If you notice someone has dentures, you should leave them in.Correct oIncorrect oYou should attend to other injuries before you attend to the unconscious casualty’s airway.Correct oIncorrect oYou should check for anything in the casualty’s mouth using your fingers.Correct oIncorrect oYou should place the casualty in the recovery position if they are unconscious and have a clear airway.Correct oIncorrect oIf someone is choking from a partial obstruction, you should slap them on the back.Correct oIncorrect oIf a person can speak or cough, it means they have a partial obstruction of the airway.Correct oIncorrect oIf someone is choking from a partial obstruction, you should ask them to cough.Correct oIncorrect oCasualties should still be checked over by a medical profession even if the obstruction has been removed.Correct oIncorrect oConscious adults and children over 1 year of age can be given 5 back slaps, with 5 chest thrusts if unsuccessful.Correct oIncorrect oYou should give all 5 back slaps in one go to make sure the obstruction clears.Correct oIncorrect o

Fill the gaps:

__________             for normal chest movements up and down.

______________    by putting your ear near to the casualty’s mouth.

__________            by putting hand on chest or abdomen.

An unconscious, breathing person should be put in which position? Tick the correct answer.

On their back with the head tilted back.

In the recovery position.

Seated.

On their back with the head in a neutral position.

Question 5 – CPR

You would commence CPR in which of the following situations? Tick the two correct answers.

If the person is unconscious and not breathing.

If the person is unconscious and not breathing normally.

If the person is unconscious and breathing normally.

Tick the criteria required for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are two correct answers.

Casualty is conscious.

Casualty is unresponsive/unconscious.

Casualty is not breathing normally.

What should you change about your CPR technique if a patient is under 12 months old? Tick the two correct answers.

Use two fingers instead of two hands for compressions and give smaller breaths.

Use two hands over the middle of the chest.

Use heel of one hand on the middle of the chest.

Make sure the head is not tilted.

At what depth should compressions be infants under 12 months old?

5 cm.

4 cm.

What is the correct ratio of compressions to breaths when performing CPR on adults, children and infants? Tick the correct answer.

20 compressions to two breaths at 100 compressions per minute.

30 compressions to three breaths at 60 compressions per minute.

30 compressions to two breaths at 100–120 compressions per minute.

20 compressions to five breaths at 60 compressions per minute.

40 compressions to two breaths at 100 compressions per minute.

What should you do if a casualty vomits during CPR? Tick the correct answers.

Do not move them, but wipe the vomit away.

Immediately turn the patient onto their side into the recovery position

Turn them onto their stomach so the vomit can drain out.

Clear the airways.

When can you cease providing CPR on a casualty? Tick the correct answers.

The casualty has regained consciousness.

You have to leave the scene for an important appointment.

The casualty is dead.

Paramedics/ambulance arrive and take over.

A passer-by has been watching how to perform CPR and agrees to take over from you.

You are physically exhausted and cannot continue.

If you are a single rescuer performing CPR and you get exhausted, what can you do?

Stop CPR and wait for the ambulance.

Ask an untrained bystander to take over and watch them do CPR.

Ask an untrained bystander to assist with compressions only.

The first aider doing ventilations should say when they are ready to swap roles.

Question 6 – AEDs

What is an AED? Tick the correct answer.

An AED is a portable device used to detect breathing.

An AED is a portable device used in hospitals to check for injuries.

An AED is a portable device that is used on any casualty over 12 months of age who requires CPR.

An AED is a device found in ambulances to diagnose injuries and illness.

Does a person have to be trained to operate an AED? Tick the correct answer.

Yes, training is essential before operating an AED.

No, whilst it is preferable that a person has been trained; a PAD (public access defibrillator) may be operated by an untrained person.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

You should only use an AED on someone who is unresponsive and not breathing normally.Correct oIncorrect oPads on an AED with paediatric capability are placed on a child in exactly the same position as on an adult.Correct oIncorrect oThe pads on an AED must be placed so they do not touch.Correct oIncorrect oIt is possible to place the pads with one on the back and one on the chest if necessary for better positioning.Correct oIncorrect oAn AED may be used on a child under 12 months old.Correct oIncorrect oAn adult AED may be used on children over eight years of age.Correct oIncorrect oPads on an AED with paediatric capability are preferred for a child aged between 1–8 years and with a body weight up to 25kgs.Correct oIncorrect oIf the pads are too large, you can place one pad on the back and one on the chest.Correct oIncorrect oSomeone should hold the casualty down while the AED is being used.Correct oIncorrect oYou should stop CPR while the AED is being prepared.Correct oIncorrect oIf a casualty has a pacemaker, you should make sure the AED pad is at least 8cm away.Correct oIncorrect oDefibrillation pads should be replaced according the expiry date shown, usually every two yearsCorrect oIncorrect oIt is best to use an AED when the casualty is lying on a metal surfaceCorrect oIncorrect oRegular battery checks of the AED are recommendedCorrect oIncorrect o

Question 7 – Infection control

Why is it important to wash your hands before and after administering first aid? Tick the correct answers.

Infection control for the casualty.

Infection control for the first aider.

Infection control for others not involved in the first aid event.

Tick the items below that are examples of good infection control practices.

Cover open cuts with waterproof bandages or air-tight bandages that provide a total seal.

Wash surfaces down with water if they have bodily fluid on them.

If you get a needlestick injury, you should squeeze it so it bleeds.

Wear PPE to avoid coming into contact with blood or bodily fluids.

Use a 10% household bleach solution to clean up spills.

Throw needles/sharps in the rubbish bin.

If you get bodily fluids on an open wound, flush with warm running water and wash with soap and warm water.

Seek medical advice if you are exposed to bodily fluids.

All of the above.

Despite your best intentions, while administering first aid to a bleeding casualty you receive a splash of blood to your arm. This contaminates both your skin and your clothing. What should you do? Tick the correct answer.

Remove clothing and dispose of it in a plastic bag, wash skin thoroughly in strong disinfectant and in as hot water as possible.

Remove clothing, wash skin with warm soapy water, rinse clothing in cold water and wash as normal.

Rub off blood with a towel and change clothing after you return home.

Question 8 – Primary and secondary surveys

What is meant by the ‘Primary Survey’? Tick the correct answer.

The first time a first aider looks at the casualty.

Life threatening first aid response is conducted first using DRSABCD.

The first aider is to check for breathing first.

Severe bleeding is controlled before other first aid response.

What is the secondary survey? Tick the correct answer.

A systematic check of the casualty from head to toes to identify any injuries and abnormalities that are not obvious to the first aider.

Asking someone for a second opinion on the casualty’s condition.

Checking each major part of the body twice.

Write down what each word in the acronym below means:

A    ____________________

M   __________________________

P    _______________________________________________________________________________

L    _______________________________________________________________________________

E    ____________________________________________________________________

There are a number of things you can do as part of a visual and verbal assessment. Tick the six things that can be done when checking a casualty.

Ask the casualty how well they can see.

Look for visual signs of injuries.

Look for medical bracelets.

Look for medication, drugs or poisons.

Look for signs of bleeding and obvious injury.

Ask the casualty if they feel any pain.

Use a tactile survey (touch) if the casualty is unconscious.

Look to see if there is anyone else nearby who can help with the casualty.

Work from the toes up to the head when the casualty is unconscious.

All of the above.

What regions of the body do you need to check during a visual assessment?

Head and spine.

Head, spine, chest, abdomen, limbs and pelvic region.

Ears, ears, nose throat.

Legs, spine and head.

Pelvic region, head and spine.

Abdomen, head and spine.

Question 9 – Loss of consciousness and head injuries

Which of the following would indicate that a casualty is unconscious and not breathing normally? Tick the correct answers.

Not responsive to talk and touch.

Breathing rate changes to be greater than 20/min or below 10/min.

Pulse rate changes to be greater than 100 per minute or slows to below 50 per minute.

The casualty appears pale or blue (cyanosis).

All of the above.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

You don’t need to check for a response if someone appears to be unconscious.Correct oIncorrect oA casualty who has been unconscious for only a very short time needs to be assessed by a medical practitioner.Correct oIncorrect oConcussion will never lead to brain swelling and bleeding within the skull.Correct oIncorrect oGrasp and squeeze the shoulders of an unconscious casualty to try and get a response.Correct oIncorrect oAspirin should be given following a head injury.Correct oIncorrect oUnconscious casualties will need to be put into the recovery position to protect their airway.Correct oIncorrect oA build-up of pressure on the brain is called cerebral compression.Correct oIncorrect oWhere the neck is involved in a head or spinal injury, you should not support the casualty’s head and neck with your hands.Correct oIncorrect oYou will need to do a visual and tactile (touch) survey on an unconscious casualty.Correct oIncorrect oIf a casualty has a major head injury, you should assume there is potential for a spinal injury.Correct oIncorrect oA casualty with a head injury may vomit.Correct oIncorrect o

Question 10 – First aid management procedures, signs and symptoms

In the following table, tick at least three signs and symptoms (Column 1, unless it says NA) and at least three first aid procedures (Column 2) for each injury/illness.

Possible signs and symptomsFirst aid proceduresSuperficial frost bite.Numbness to area/prickling pain to the affected area.Skin is white or a mottled blue colour.Skin is blue or black.Skin feels hard.Skin feels flaccid. Impaired movement of affected body part.Call 000.Get the person out of the cold/move into sheltered area.Do not move the person. Cover with blankets to reheat body.Remove clothing from affected area.Keep clothing in place – do not remove from affected area. Rewarm the affected area as soon as possible but slowly. Use body heat or water no more than 42°C to bring the affected area back to normal temperature. Do not rub the tissue, do not use radiant heat. Heat the affected area immediately raising body temperature as quickly as possible. Use as much heat as the casualty is able to withstand. Elevate affected limbs to reduce pain and swelling.Diabetes – a moderately severe hypoglycaemia attack in a conscious casualty.Weak, light-headed and/ or giddy/mental confusion.Flushed, dry skin.Fruity smell on the breath.Cold, pale, moist skin.Slow pulse.Rapid pulse.Consciousness deteriorating.DRSABCD.Give easily absorbed carbohydrate – for example, honey, jelly beans, etc.Give the casualty insulin.Give the casualty ‘diet’ drink containing artificial sweetener.Supervise until recovered. Seek medical assistance.Dislocation of a finger.Numb finger.Pain in the joint.Disfigured joint.Loss of function. Able to use finger but use causes pins and needles.Attempt to pop the joint back into place.Do not attempt to correct the dislocation/check for circulation.Use RICER technique.Do not use ice as this will cause too much pain.Immobilise in a position that is most comfortable.Check for circulation.Near drowning where the casualty is found not breathing in the water.Not breathing.Lungs will always be full of water/vomit.Vomiting.Distended stomach.  Follow DRSABCD and call 000 as soon as possible.Remove casualty from water if possible. Do not attempt to rescue a drowning victim from water beyond own swimming ability.Roll onto back during initial checking and clearing of the airway – check for breathing.Roll onto side during initial checking and clearing of the airway – check for breathing. Push on the stomach to assist with regurgitation of swallowed water.Do not attempt to empty stomach if distended.Heat exhaustion in conscious casualty.Exposure to high temperature.History of overwork and late nights.Heat cramps – severe muscle pain, particularly in legs and abdomen.Heat cramps – severe muscle pain, particularly in chest, arms and shoulders.Faintness/dizziness/weakness.Vomiting/diarrhoea.Remove casualty from source of heat and keep in the shade. Place in a bath of ice, or cover with ice to reduce temperature as quickly as possible.Remove excess clothing and loosen clothing and lie the casualty down.Encourage casualty to drink as much water as possible.Give casualty sips of water.Apply cool face washer or spray with an atomiser spray and cool by fanning.Keep casualty moving so they do not go to sleep.Foreign particle in the eye.Very dry, itchy eye.Watering eye.Staring gaze.Constant blinking or unable to open eye.Swollen, red eyes.Headaches.    Sit the casualty down looking towards the light and try to locate the particle by examining eye and lids. Ask casualty to rub eye hard to attempt to remove foreign particle.Remove any object penetrating from the eye with tweezers.If object is visible remove with corner of damp cloth.If unable to remove – or can’t find it, provide eye wash with sterile saline or clean water.If unable to remove, cover with gauze dressing and tell them to leave it on for 48 hours. If not better by then, see medical practitioner.Cuts and abrasions on legs and knees from falling onto asphalt.N/AClean the wound with sterile gauze and apply antiseptic.Scrub the wound to remove any embedded dirt.If there is embedded dirt clean as well as possible then apply a surfactant antiseptic. Leave wound uncovered so that it dries out.Cover wound with non-stick sterile dressing.Apply a tourniquet.Someone has stepped on a used hypodermic needle.N/ADo not wash wound so studies can be done for infectious diseases.Wash wound immediately with soapy water – or alcohol-based hand rub.Arrange for casualty to go straight to hospital or doctor for blood tests.Place plaster on wound and advise casualty to visit the doctor as soon as possible if they experience any signs of illness.Contact user of the needle if known to arrange for them to undergo blood tests.Exposure to cold – hypothermia.Exposure to extreme cold.History of feeling cold and having bad circulation.Complaints of coldness and tiredness/physical and mental lethargy/slurred speech, shivering.Casualty mistakenly thinks they are too hot and may attempt to remove clothing.Pale, cool skin.Slow irregular pulse and high blood pressure.Very fast pulse with low blood pressure.Muscle stiffness.  DRSABCD.Move casualty from cold environment and lie casualty flat.Give a tot of rum or whiskey.Keep casualty moving to warm their body.Do not remove wet clothing under any circumstances. Cover with dry, warm blankets.Remove sources of heat loss – for example, contact with cold surfaces, wind, wet clothes (only if there are dry blankets or suitable covers around). Give warm drinks (not alcohol). Apply a source of external heat such as heat pack or body to body contact.
Shock.Dizziness, confusion and deterioration of consciousness, nausea or vomiting – possible collapse.A casualty in shock will never vomit.Muscle weakness, restlessness and possibly anxiety.Thirst.Shortness of breath with very slow breathing.Cold sweaty skin that may appear pale – complains of feeling cold.Hot, dry itchy skin that appears reddened.Rapid breathing.Control any bleeding with direct pressure.Ensure the casualty is comfortable preferably lying down with legs elevated.Make comfortable, ensuring the legs are lower than the heart.Ask casualty to breath into a brown paper bag. Provide oxygen if available and trained to do so.Keep casualty very cool. DRSABCD – if unconscious, follow basic life support chart. Give alcoholic drink.Stroke.Facial weakness, arm weakness and speech difficulty.Severe chest pain.Droopy mouth on both sides of the face.Numbness, paralysis of the face, arm or leg.Difficulty speaking or understanding and difficulty swallowing.Talking uncontrollably – highly agitated.Dizziness, loss of balance/visual disturbances.Severe and abrupt onset headache.DRSABCD – provide oxygen if available and trained.Place casualty in a cool bath.Stay with the casualty and provide reassurance.Loosen tight clothing and assist casualty to rest in half sitting position.Give casualty a nice cup of tea.Do not give anything to eat or drink.Tonic clonic seizuresJerking movements of the head, arms and/or legs which may result in loss of consciousness.Controlled rhythmical movements of arms, legs or body.Salivation/frothing of the mouth.Lucid memory of the seizure after it has finished.Possible loss of bladder and bowel control.Confusion.DRSABCD.Ensure the casualty is not in danger. Remove objects which may cause injury and use pillows to soften surfaces if possible.Put something in the person’s mouth so they do not swallow their tongue.Restrain the casualty so they cannot hurt themselves.Lay the casualty down and turn victim on the side as soon as possible when the seizure is over.Give the casualty honey or jelly beans as they recover.Reassure casualty following seizure, explaining what has happened to them.Focal seizuresJerking movements of the head, arms and/or legs which may result in loss of consciousness.Casualty may appear unresponsive and confused. Salivation/frothing of the mouth. Smacking of the lips, wandering and or fumbling movements of the hand may be present.May display inappropriate behaviour that may be mistaken for alcohol/drug intoxication or psychiatric disturbance.Gently guide the casualty past obstacles and away from dangerous places. Give them a cup of tea and a biscuit. Once the seizure finishes, calmy talk with the casualty and they regain awareness and ask if they are OK.Restrain the casualty so they cannot hurt themselves.Reassure the casualty that they are safe and that you will stay with them until they recover. Call 000 if you feel unsure about the seizure or if it lasts for longer than five minutes.Absence seizuresCasualty will stare vacantly Eyes may drift upwards and flicker Loss of awareness that can be mistaken for day dreaming Controlled rhythmical movements of arms, legs or body.May display inappropriate behaviour that may be mistaken for alcohol/drug intoxication or psychiatric disturbance.Recognise that a seizure has occurred.Provide reassurance to the casualty.Repeat any information that may have been missed during the seizure. Restrain the casualty so they cannot hurt themselves.Give the casualty honey or jelly beans as they recover.Heart attack.Severe squeezing type pain in the chest area only.Pain or discomfort in any or all of chest, neck, throat, jaw, shoulders, back, arms, wrists and/or hands – tightness, heaviness, fullness or squeezing.Flushed appearance with dry skin.Pale skin/sweating.Shortness of breath/nausea or vomiting.Dizziness or light-headedness.Drooping mouth.DRSABCD.Encourage casualty to stop what they are doing and rest in comfortable position.Ask casualty to walk around slowly to find out whether the pain worsens.Assist casualty with prescribed medication that may assist such as angina table, oral spray, etc.Leave casualty so that you can meet the ambulance and tell them about the condition of the casualty.Administer oxygen therapy if trained to do so.Offer the casualty a cup of tea.Suspected head, neck or spinal injury.Pain in the injured area with tingling and numbness in limbs and area below injury.Casualty totally unable to move arms and legs.Erection in unconscious male.Tingling in the spinal area above location of the injury.Nausea/headache/dizziness.Uncontrolled bleeding.Loss of limb functions and/or head or neck in abnormal position.Loss of bladder or bowel control.DRSABCD.Support head and neck.Do not give resuscitation unless you can do so without moving the casualty.Give sugary drink or jelly beans.Handle casualty carefully to ensure harm minimisation.Move casualty into the recovery position with head turned to the side in case of vomiting.  DehydrationPale, cool, clammy skin.Red, flushed face.Breathing rate slows.Constant need to urinate.Rapid breathing.Profuse and prolonged sweating.Thirst.Loss of skin elasticity.Sunken eyes in children.Call 000. Complete rest in the shade, no further exertion.Remove unnecessary clothing.Make them drink some fizzy drink to boost their energy.Give cool water to drink. Ensure casualty has assistance when recovered.

Question 11 – Heatstroke

Heat exhaustion and heatstroke present with the same symptoms. Which one of the below items tells you that a person is suffering from heatstroke rather than heat exhaustion?

After half an hour they are not getting any better.

After several minutes they are not showing signs of improvement.

They are walking around okay but still feel a bit unwell.

They are able to stand and talk to you clearly.

Tick the symptoms shown by a person with heatstroke.

Coughing.

Coma.

Seizures.

Sneezing.

Hives, welts and redness over the body.

Abnormal walking.

Swelling of the lips.

Incoherent speech.

Confusion.

The first aid procedures below are imperative for athletes suffering from heatstroke. Fill in the blanks to indicate what steps must be taken.

____________ as much clothing as possible.

__________ with any available water.

________ vigorously by whatever means possible – improvise e.g. use a clipboard, bin lid.

When available, cool or ice water immersion is the most effective cooling means possible:

________________ the athlete up to the neck in a cool or ice bath OR

____________ all of the body with ice water soaked towels that are changed frequently as an alternative if a bath isn’t available but ice is.

____________________ to summon emergency services, but do so once you are certain first aid cooling is being implemented.

Question 12 – Bites, stings and poisons

Pressure immobilisation treatment (PIT) is often used to treat bite and stings – however in some cases it is not recommended. In the table below:

identify the type of animal

indicate whether the pressure immobilisation technique, vinegar or an ice pack should be used to treat the sting or bite of this creature (circle the correct answer).

 Type of animal or insectTreatment (circle)
 PITIce packVinegar  
 PITIce packVinegar  
 PITIce packVinegar  
 PITIce packVinegar
 PITIce packVinegar
 PITIce packVinegar
 PITIce packVinegar  
 PITIce packVinegar
 PITIce packVinegar
 PITIce packVinegar

Where can you obtain authoritative first aid advice about poisons? Tick the two correct answers.

Ask your work colleague.

Your state’s Poisons Information Centre.

Safety data sheet.

Local library.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

A child who has swallowed sleeping pills who is conscious but drowsy should be made to vomit.Correct oIncorrect oVomit does not need to be sent with the patient for analysis at the hospital, even if the source of the poison is not known.Correct oIncorrect oMilk or ice cream should be given to people who have swallowed corrosives.Correct oIncorrect oPeople who have swallowed non-corrosive poison should be given a glass of salty water to take to induce vomiting.Correct oIncorrect o

Question 13 – Fractures

A greenstick fracture is…

Most likely to occur in an adult.

Most likely to occur in a child.

Most often caused by falling from trees.

Where the bone breaks all the way through.

Indicate whether the following fractures present a risk of infection. Circle the correct answer – Yes or No?

Type of fractureRisk of infectionFracture where the skin around the fracture is not brokenYES      NOFracture where the bone protrudes through the skinYES      NO

What is a ‘complicated’ fracture? Tick the correct answer.

A fracture where the bone breaks in more than one place.

A fracture that involves injuries to other organs and/or nerves as a result of the fracture.

A fracture where medical assistance is not available.

All of the above.

What are the signs and symptoms of someone who may have a fracture? Tick the correct answers.

Pain and tenderness at affected area.

The injured part is difficult or impossible to move.

Loss of power.

Protruding bone.

Deformity.

The following table lists the steps in managing a fracture. Put these steps in the correct order by placing numbers in the box next to each step.

Steps to manage a fractureStep numberIf you have called an ambulance keep them still until they arrive Support injury with your hands until properly immobilised Don’t let the casualty drink or eat as they may need surgery Reassure the casualty and tell them to keep still Only move the casualty if they are in direct danger Treat for shock 

Question 14 – Vital signs

What is the normal resting heart rate range for a four-year-old child? Tick the correct answer.

60–80 beats per minute.

80–100 beats per minute.

100–120 beats per minute.

What is the normal resting heart rate range for an adult? Tick the correct answer.

60–80 beats per minute.

80–100 beats per minute.

100–120 beats per minute.

What is the normal resting heart rate range for a newborn? Tick the correct answer.

60–80 beats per minute.

80–100 beats per minute.

100–120 beats per minute

120–160 beats per minute

What is the normal respiration rate for an infant aged 1–12 months? Tick the correct answer.

25–40 breaths per minute.

20–30 breaths per minute.

16–20 breaths per minute.

5–15 breaths per minute.

What is the normal respiration rate for a newborn? Tick the correct answer.

25–40 breaths per minute.

20–30 breaths per minute.

40–60 breaths per minute.

25–35 breaths per minute.

What is the normal respiration rate for a four-year-old child? Tick the correct answer.

20–30 breaths per minute.

25–30 breaths per minute.

35–45 breaths per minute.

40–60 breaths per minute.

Question 15 – Asthma, Allergic reaction and Anaphylaxis

Tick the triggers that may cause an allergic reaction.

Peanuts.

Tree nuts.

Cow’s milk.

Eggs.

Wheat.

Fish.

Shellfish.

Soy.

Sesame.

Medications.

Insect bites and stings.

Tick the signs and symptoms of a mild to moderate allergic reaction.

Difficult and noisy breathing.

Wheezing or persistent cough.

Swelling of the face.

Hives, welts and redness over the body.

Swelling or tightness of the throat.

Difficulty talking.

Persistent dizziness.

Loss of consciousness.

Pale and floppy in young children.

Abdominal pain and vomiting.

Swelling of the lips.

Swelling of the eyes.

Tick the signs and symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction.

Difficult and noisy breathing.

Wheezing or persistent cough.

Difficulty talking and hoarse voice.

Swelling of the face.

Hives, welts and redness over the body.

Swelling or tightness of the throat.

Difficulty talking.

Persistent dizziness.

Loss of consciousness.

Pale and floppy in young children.

Abdominal pain and vomiting.

Swelling of the lips.

Swelling of the eyes.

The following table lists the steps in managing a casualty with an anaphylaxis reaction. Put these steps in the correct order by placing numbers in the box next to each step.

Steps to manage an anaphylaxis reactionStep numberTransfer casualty to hospital for at least 4 hours of observation Lay casualty flat – do not allow to stand and walk. Phone family/emergency contact. Call ambulance. Further adrenalin dose may be given if no response after 5 minutes. Give EpiPen or EpiPen Jr adrenaline auto-injector. 

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

An adrenalin auto-injector is the only treatment for a severe allergic reaction anaphylaxisCorrect oIncorrect oMild to moderate allergic reactions will not turn into anaphylaxis.Correct oIncorrect oAnti-histamines are the treatment for a mild to moderate allergic reaction in most casesCorrect oIncorrect o

Tick the items from the following list that are possible triggers of asthma.

Colds and flu/illness.

Cigarette smoke.

Exercise.

Inhaled allergens (pollens, moulds, animal dander, dust mites).

Environmental factors (dust, pollution, wood smoke, bush fires).

Changes in temperature and weather.

Medications.

Chemicals and strong smells.

Emotions – laughter, stress, etc.

Some foods and food preservatives.

 

Which items from the following list are signs/symptoms of asthma? Tick the five correct answers.

Dry, irritating cough/chest tightness.

Bleeding from the nose.

Shortness of breath/wheezing.

Hives, welts and redness over body.

Pale and sweaty skin.

High fever.

Blue discolouration around the lips.

How should asthma medication be administered for someone who is suffering an asthma attack? Tick the correct answer.

Ten puffs of medication with four breaths in between each puff – administered every four minutes until improved.

Four puffs of medication with one breath in between each puff – administered every ten minutes until improved.

Four puffs of medication with four breaths in between each puff – administered every four minutes until improved.

During an asthma attack, when should you call an ambulance? Tick the correct answers.

If it is the first time the child has had an asthma attack.

If you have administered medication following the 4x4x4 method and the child has not improved.

If the child’s condition deteriorates rapidly.

Question 16 – RICER

What does the acronym RICER stand for?

R    __________

I     ________

C    ______________________

E    __________________

R    __________________

When is the RICER procedure used? Tick the correct answer.

When a person feels faint.

Sprains and strains.

Fractured bones.

Severe headache.

To stop bleeding.

How long should an ice compress be applied for? Tick the correct answer.

Until the pain has gone.

20 minutes every two hours for up to 24 hours.

40 minutes every four hours for up to 48 hours.

30 minutes every three hours for up to 12 hours.

Question 17 – Bleeding

What is the correct treatment for nose bleed? Tick the correct answer.

Sit with head forward, apply direct pressure for 10–20 minutes.

Sit with head forward, apply direct pressure for 10 minutes only, ask casualty to blow their nose to check whether bleeding has stopped.

Sit with head forward, apply direct pressure for 10 minutes only, place hot compress to back of neck.

A casualty is bleeding profusely from a large gaping cut. What action should you take? Tick the correct answer.

Wrap up loosely in a towel to absorb the blood.

Apply a tourniquet to reduce blood flow.

Hold wound downwards to drain.

Press skin edges together and apply direct pressure with pad and bandage, elevate.

Question 18 – Burns

Which of the following burns are considered to be serious, requiring urgent medical care? Tick the correct answers.

Deep burns.

Superficial burns involving 9% of the body for an adult and 5% for a child.

Superficial burns involving 5% of the body for an adult and 3% for a child.

Superficial burn of the index finger on a 10-year-old child.

Superficial burn to the genitalia of a 30-year-old woman.

Burns to the airway, hands, feet and armpits.

Inhalation burns.

Superficial burn to the right leg between the top of the calf and groin on an adult.

All of the above.

Someone you work with has spilled boiling water over their body. For how long should you irrigate the affected area? Tick the correct answer.

30 minutes.

10 minutes.

15 minutes.

20 minutes.

The person who has spilled boiling water over their body is now very cold and shivering. You have been irrigating the burn with cool water for only five minutes. What should you do? Tick the correct answer.

Continue to irrigate until 20 minutes have passed.

Give them a blanket.

Irrigate with warm water instead of cool.

Stop irrigating.

Tick ‘Correct’ or ‘Incorrect’ to the following statements.

If burn is caused by bitumen, you should immediately remove bitumen from the casualty’s skin to save them from further burns.Correct oIncorrect oYou should use your bare hands to remove contaminated clothing from a casualty who has suffered a chemical burn.Correct oIncorrect oYou should immediately run cool tap water directly onto the chemical burn area for at least one hour or until the stinging stops.Correct oIncorrect oYou should refer to the safety data sheet or instructions on the container for specific treatment.Correct oIncorrect o

 

Appendices

Appendix A: Incident Report Form

INCIDENT REPORT FORMCasualty’s name:Age of casualty:Date/time of incident:Witnesses:Name of person completing this form:Cause of injury (if known at the time of reporting)Type of injury/injuries:Body part(s) injured:Description of how and where the incident occurred  Description of first aid administered (if applicable)Please identify any hazards that contributed to this incident occurringOther notes (not mandatory to be filled in)Did emergency services attend the scene? (please circle)                        YES                  NOSignature _____________________________________________________________________________ Date report is completed _________________________________________________________________

[1] Source: Innovation & Business Skills Australia. (2015). BSB business services training package: implementation guide. Retrieved from https://vetnet.gov.au/Public%20Documents/BSBv1.2%20Business%20Services%20Implementation%20Guide.pdf.

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